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RB GLOBAL INC. - Annual Report: 2022 (Form 10-K)

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission file number: 001-13425

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Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Canada

    

98-0626225

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

9500 Glenlyon Parkway

 

 

Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5J 0C6

 

(778) 331-5500

(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)

 

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

Common Shares

RBA

New York Stock Exchange

Common Share Purchase Rights

N/A

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: Restricted Share Units

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer   

Smaller reporting company 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

At June 30, 2022 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and directors are "affiliates" of the registrant) was approximately $7,200,381,824. The number of common shares of the registrant outstanding as of February 17, 2023, was 111,142,700.

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Documents Incorporated by Reference

Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, in connection with the registrant’s 2022 Annual and Special Meeting of Shareholders, are incorporated herein by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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RITCHIE BROS. AUCTIONEERS INCORPORATED

FORM 10-K

For the year ended December 31, 2022

INDEX

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

1

PART I

ITEM 1:

Business

4

ITEM 1A:

Risk Factors

18

ITEM 1B:

Unresolved Staff Comments

33

ITEM 2:

Properties

33

ITEM 3:

Legal Proceedings

34

ITEM 4:

Mine Safety Disclosures

34

PART II

ITEM 5:

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

35

ITEM 6:

[Reserved]

38

ITEM 7:

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

39

ITEM 7A:

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

70

ITEM 8:

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, including the Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID 1263)

71

ITEM 9:

Changes In and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

124

ITEM 9A:

Controls and Procedures

124

ITEM 9B:

Other Information

127

ITEM 9C:

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

127

PART III

ITEM 10:

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

127

ITEM 11:

Executive Compensation

127

ITEM 12:

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

127

ITEM 13:

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

127

ITEM 14:

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

127

PART IV

ITEM 15:

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

128

ITEM 16:

Form 10-K Summary

132

SIGNATURES

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

The information discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K of Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated (“Ritchie Bros.”, the “Company”, “we”, or “us”) includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and Canadian securities laws. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by such words as “aim”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “could”, “continue”, “estimate”, “expect”, “intend”, “may”, “ongoing”, “plan”, “potential”, “predict”, “will”, “should”, “would”, “could”, “likely”, “generally”, “future”, “long-term”, or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially. These statements are based on our current expectations and estimates about our business and markets, and may include, among others, statements relating to:

our future strategy, objectives, targets, projections and performance;
our ability to drive shareholder value;
potential growth and market opportunities;
our internet initiatives and the level of participation in our auctions by internet bidders, and the success of our online marketplaces;
our ability to grow our businesses, acquire new customers, enhance our sector reach, drive geographic depth, and scale our operations;
the impact of our initiatives, services, investments, and acquisitions on us and our customers;
the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19”) and the direct and indirect impact of such pandemic on our operations and personnel, commercial activity and demand across our business and our customers' businesses, as well as responses to the pandemic by the government, business and consumers;
the acquisition or disposition of properties;
potential future mergers and acquisitions, including the proposed acquisition of IAA, Inc. (“IAA”);
our expected indebtedness in connection with the proposed acquisition of IAA;
the impact of our new initiatives, services, investments, and acquisitions on us and our customers;
our future capital expenditures and returns on those expenditures;
our ability to add new business and information solutions, including, among others, our ability to maximize and integrate technology to enhance our existing services and support additional value-added service offerings;
the supply trend of equipment in the market and the anticipated price environment for late model equipment, as well as the resulting effect on our business and Gross Transaction Value (“GTV”);
fluctuations in our quarterly revenues and operating performance resulting from the seasonality of our business;
our compliance with all laws, rules, regulations, and requirements that affect our business;
effects of various economic, financial, industry, and market conditions or policies, including inflation, the supply and demand for property, equipment, or natural resources;
the geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe in light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine;
the behavior of equipment pricing;
the relative percentage of GTV represented by straight commission or underwritten (guarantee and inventory) contracts, and its impact on revenues and profitability;
the projected increase to our fee revenues as a result of the harmonization of our fee structure;
our future capital expenditures and returns on those expenditures;
the effect of any currency exchange and interest rate fluctuations on our results of operations;
the grant and satisfaction of equity awards pursuant to our compensation plans;
any future declaration and payment of dividends, including the special dividend to be paid to our shareholder in connection with the proposed acquisition of IAA, and the tax treatment of any such dividends;
financing available to us from our credit facilities or other sources, our ability to refinance borrowings, and the sufficiency of our working capital to meet our financial needs; and
our ability to satisfy our present operating requirements and fund future growth through existing working capital, credit facilities and debt.

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While we have not described all potential risks related to our business and owning our common shares, the factors discussed in “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 are among those that may affect our performance materially or could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable securities law and regulations of relevant securities exchanges, we do not intend to update publicly any forward-looking statements, even if our expectations have been affected by new information, future events or other developments. You should consider our forward-looking statements in light of the factors listed or referenced under “Risk Factors” herein.

SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

The following is a summary of the principal risks described below in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe that the risks described in the “Risk Factors” section are material to investors, but other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also adversely affect us. The following summary should not be considered an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing us, and it should be read in conjunction with the “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

Risks Related to the Proposed Acquisition of IAA

The pendency of our acquisition of IAA or our failure to complete such acquisition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price.
While the Merger Agreement is in effect, we are subject to restrictions on our business activities.
We may experience difficulties in integrating our operations with those of IAA and realizing the expected benefits of the acquisition.
We will incur a substantial amount of debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and financial condition.
Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation of the acquisition of IAA.

Risks Related to Our Business

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.
Damage to our reputation could harm our business.
We may incur losses as a result of our guarantee and inventory contracts and advances to consignors.
The availability and performance of our technology infrastructure, including our websites, is critical to our business and continued growth.
Consumer behavior is rapidly changing, and if we are unable to successfully adapt to consumer preferences and develop and maintain a relevant and reliable inventory management and multichannel disposition experience for our customers, our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.
We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of certain of our platforms and disrupt our business.
Government regulation of the Internet and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes in this or other regulations could substantially harm our business and results of operations.
If our ability, or the ability of our third party service partners, cloud computing platform providers or third party data center hosting facilities, to safeguard the reliability, integrity and confidentiality of our and their information technology systems is compromised, if unauthorized access is obtained to our systems or customers’, suppliers', counterparties' and employees' confidential information, or if authorized access is blocked or disabled, we may incur significant reputational harm, legal exposure, or a negative financial impact.
Our future expenses may increase significantly and our operations and ability to expand may be limited as a result of licenses, laws and regulations governing auction sites, environmental protection, international trade and other matters.
Losing the services of one or more key personnel or the failure to attract, train and retain personnel could materially affect our business.
Failure to maintain safe sites could materially affect our business and reputation.
Income and commodity tax amounts, including tax expense, may be materially different than expected and there is a trend by global tax collection authorities towards the adoption of more aggressive laws, regulations, interpretations and audit practices.
Our substantial international operations expose us to foreign exchange rate fluctuations that could harm our results of operations.

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Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations including export control regulations.
Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, or the CFPOA, and similar laws associated with our activities outside of the U.S. could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are pursuing a long-term growth strategy that may include acquisitions and developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, which requires upfront investment with no guarantee of long-term returns.
We are regularly subject to general litigation and other claims, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Privacy concerns and our compliance with current and evolving domestic or foreign laws and regulations regarding the processing of personal information and other data may increase our costs, impact our marketing efforts or decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and our failure to comply with those laws and regulations may expose us to liability and reputational harm.
Our business continuity plan may not operate effectively in the event of a significant interruption of our business.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur as a result of our operations.
Our business operations, results of operations, cash flows and financial performance may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Certain global conditions may affect our ability to conduct successful events.

Financial Risks

Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements, reduce investor confidence, and adversely impact our stock price.
We have substantial indebtedness, and the degree to which we are leveraged may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our debt instruments have restrictive covenants that could limit our financial flexibility.
Our operating results are subject to quarterly variations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our growth prospects.
Our use of open source software could subject us to risks, including with respect to the terms of open source licenses.

Risks Related to Our Industry

Competition could result in reductions in our future revenues and profitability.
Decreases in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, could harm our business.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Governance

Our articles, by-laws, shareholder rights plan and Canadian law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.
U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers.
We are governed by the corporate laws of Canada which in some cases have a different effect on shareholders than the corporate laws of Delaware.

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PART I

ITEM 1:       BUSINESS

Company Overview

Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated (“Ritchie Bros.”, the “Company”, “we”, or “us”) (NYSE & TSX: RBA) was founded in 1958 in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada and is a world leader in asset management and disposition technologies for commercial assets, used equipment and other assets. Our expertise, unprecedented global reach, market insights, and trusted portfolio of brands provide us with a unique position within the used equipment market.

Through our unreserved auctions, online marketplaces, listings, and private brokerage services, we sell a broad range of primarily used commercial and industrial assets, as well as government surplus. Construction and commercial transportation assets comprise the majority of the equipment sold by GTV dollar value, though we sell a wide variety of assets. Customers selling equipment through our sales channels include end users (such as construction companies), equipment dealers, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and other equipment owners (such as rental companies). Our customers participate in a variety of sectors, including construction, commercial transportation, agriculture, energy, and natural resources.

We also provide our customers with a wide array of value-added services aligned with our growth strategy to create a global marketplace for used equipment services and solutions. Our other services include equipment financing, asset appraisals and inspections, online equipment listings, logistical services, and ancillary services such as equipment refurbishment. We offer our customers asset technology solutions to manage the end-to-end disposition process of their assets and provide market data intelligence to make more accurate and reliable business decisions. Additionally, we offer our customers an innovative technology platform that supports equipment lifecycle management and parts procurement integration with both original equipment manufacturers and dealers, as well as a software as a service platform for end-to-end parts procurement, and access to digital catalogs and diagrams.

We operate globally with locations in 13 countries, including the U.S., Canada, Australia, the United Arab Emirates, and the Netherlands, and maintain a presence in 42 countries where customers can sell from their own yards. We employ more than 2,800 full-time employees worldwide.

Proposed Acquisition of IAA

On November 7, 2022, the Company entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, which was subsequently amended on January 22, 2023 (the “Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which it agreed to acquire IAA, Inc., a leading global digital marketplace connecting vehicle buyers and sellers. IAA stockholders will receive $12.80 in cash and 0.5252 common shares of the Company for each share of IAA common stock they own. Accordingly, the Company will (i) issue approximately 70.3 million shares of its common stock to the stockholders of IAA and (ii) pay to the stockholders of IAA approximately $1.7 billion in cash consideration. In addition, the Company will repay approximately $1.2 billion of IAA’s net debt. The acquisition of IAA is expected to close in the first half of 2023, subject to the satisfaction of various conditions, including, among other things, (1) the approval of the issuance of our common shares by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of our outstanding common shares, (2) the adoption of the Merger Agreement by holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of IAA’s common stock, and (3) other customary closing conditions.

The Company plans to fund the proposed acquisition of IAA through a combination of cash, borrowings under its credit facilities and proceeds from the sale of debt securities. In connection with the Merger Agreement, the Company entered into a debt commitment letter with certain financial institutions that committed to provide, subject to certain terms and conditions, the bridge loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $2.8 billion and a backstop senior secured revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $750.0 million. On December 9, 2022, the Company subsequently closed an amendment to its existing credit agreement with a syndicate of lenders pursuant to which, among other things, the Company obtained (a) amendments to the facility to specifically permit the proposed acquisition of IAA (b) commitments for a term loan A facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $1.8 billion to be used to finance the proposed IAA acquisition and (c) the ability to borrow up to $200.0 million of the revolving facility on a limited conditionality basis to finance the proposed IAA acquisition. The amendment allowed the Company to permanently terminate the backstop senior revolving credit commitments and reduce the senior secured bridge facility commitments by the amount of the term loan A facility and the amount of the existing term loans under the existing credit agreement.

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On January 23, 2023, the Company announced that it expects to approve the payment of a one-time special dividend to the Company’s shareholders in the amount of $1.08 per share, contingent upon the completion of the merger and consent of the TSX. IAA stockholders will not be entitled to receive the special dividend with respect to any of the Company’s common shares received as consideration. We will not pay the special dividend if the Merger Agreement is terminated or if the merger is not completed. Furthermore, if the Merger Agreement is terminated under specified circumstances, the Company or IAA may be required to pay the other a termination amount of $189 million or the Company may be required to reimburse IAA for its out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with the Merger Agreement up to an aggregate amount of $5 million.

We believe that the proposed acquisition of IAA accelerates our journey to become the trusted global marketplace for insights, services and transaction solutions. The transaction is expected to diversify our customer base by providing the Company with a significant presence in the vehicle remarketing vertical that has strong industry fundamentals with proven secular growth. We believe that the combination will accelerate our growth and strategic vision to create a next-generation global marketplace for commercial assets and vehicles, supported by advanced technologies and data analytics. Additionally, our management team has extensive experience in the automotive and insurance ecosystem, which we believe will help shape the go-forward customer experience. With enhanced scale and an expanded addressable market, the Company believes it will be able to drive additional GTV growth through its platforms and auction sites, in turn generating more insights for its customers and expanding the adoption of our other high-margin tech-enabled services.

Impact of Russia-Ukraine Conflict on Our Business

On February 24, 2022, the geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe intensified with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, sharply affecting economic and global financial markets. Subsequent economic sanctions on Russia have exacerbated ongoing economic challenges, including issues such as rising inflation, disruption to global supply chains and increases in hydrocarbon prices.

The rise in transportation costs, in part driven by higher fuel costs, has globally impacted both costs and timing of import and export of commercial assets between countries and has contributed to higher costs in operating our equipment. Further, increases in natural gas prices in Europe may also lead to a slowdown in its economy and as a result may negatively impact the import and export of equipment in Eastern Europe, which could affect our operations.

We do not have any operations in Russia or Ukraine or any material operations in neighboring countries. We have a limited number of direct customers in the effected region and have sourced a limited number of assets in 2022 from neighboring countries to sell through our operations. However, we cannot estimate the extent of the ongoing conflict’s impacts or future developments, including the continued evolution of military activity and sanctions imposed with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which could adversely affect the domestic economy generally and our business specifically.

Impact of Inflation on Our Business

Inflation impacted our global business operations in 2022, with the rise of costs in freight, fuel, supplies, labor, non-durable goods and consumables at our yards and in our operations. Our travel costs have also increased, partly due to higher travel activity post pandemic, increased travel to support our growth strategy and acquisitions, as well as due to inflation. In addition, we have seen an increase in labor costs with the labor market remaining fairly strong. We expect inflationary pressures to continue into 2023 and we regularly evaluate operational productivity improvements that may offset these pressures while continuing to drive growth and strong financial performance. 

The United States Federal Reserve is also continuing to raise interest rates, contributing to a stronger U.S. dollar, which has had an unfavorable impact on the translation of some of our operations to a U.S. dollar presentation currency, particularly in Canada, Europe and Australia.

Impact of COVID-19 and Supply Chain Constraints to Our Business

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a global pandemic (“COVID-19”). In response, we transitioned all of our traditional live onsite auctions to online bidding utilizing our existing online bidding technology. In 2022, with the lifting of travel restrictions and quarantine requirements we began to return to live in-person onsite bidding at some of our auction events, offering both onsite and online bidding, and we significantly improved our ability to move equipment to and from our auction sites and across borders. However, we also saw heightened transportation costs, extended lead times and supply chain delays and disruptions, negatively impacting our business and the buying and selling behaviours of our customers. Supply of equipment was

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tight with increased constraints as our customers were delaying disposition of aged equipment and turnover of equipment slowed down, primarily from lease and rental companies. In our operations, we also incurred higher maintenance costs from the delay in turnover of our leased vehicle fleets. These impacts were partly due to the impact of COVID -19, but also partly due to other more recent macroeconomic factors such as inflation and the Russian-Ukraine conflict.

Strategy

Our strategy to become the trusted global marketplace for insights, services and transaction solutions for commercial assets and vehicles will help us address the large and fragmented used equipment marketplace that we operate in today. We believe our strategy will help us unlock significant growth opportunities by building on Ritchie Bros.’ core business and expanding into additional services. We are building on our position as a trusted advisor to our customers by evolving from transactional selling to meeting the needs of our customers through solution selling.

We see significant growth opportunities ahead by becoming the trusted global marketplace for insights, services, and transaction solutions for commercial assets and vehicles. This represents not a shift, but an expansion of our transaction solutions for which we are already well known. We value our long-tenured relationships with our customers, and the trust they have in our brand and platform. We are leveraging our sales channels to create a global marketplace for services and solutions that help our customers gain the insights they need to make decisions and run their businesses. We also intend to offer complimentary third-party services on our platform where it will help our customers.

This strategy is supported by five strategic pillars on which we will build our future success:

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Customer Experience - At Ritchie Bros., we have a long history, culture and passion for helping our customers. We continue to find ways to enrich our customers’ experience by making our processes easier, our offerings more complete and our brands simpler.

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Employee Experience - We cannot deliver a great customer experience without great employees. We continue to strive to create the best workplace for all employees and to create a place where they want to build a career. We encourage open and honest dialogue and are committed to robust communications from management to employees and creating channels for them to give feedback, as well as fixing processes and technology to improve the work environment for the benefit of both customers and employees.

Modern Architecture - We are transitioning to a modern architecture based in the cloud and comprised of microservices that allow us to create a single presence for our customers across all of our solutions. A modern architecture will allow flexibility and agility to enable scalable growth for us, our customers, and our partners.

Inventory Management System - We see our Inventory Management System, which integrates and tracks inventory data for selected customers, as a gateway for our customers to access our marketplaces and services. With the data, we can offer more timely and proactive advice and solutions to our customers with more ease of use.

Accelerate Growth – We continually seek to identify areas to pilot improved business processes to positively impact the customer experience. We look to accelerate growth by scaling the learnings from these pilots into our global operations.

We believe our strategy of becoming the global trusted marketplace for commercial assets will allow us to better serve our customers and will facilitate better penetration into non-auction markets and associated services. Building an integrated, easy to use marketplace, and becoming the trusted advisor to our customers opens significant potential for our business. We will start, as always, with our customers and our partners, and make sure we are building what they need.

Service Offerings

We offer our equipment buyer and seller customers multiple distinct, complementary, multi-channel brand solutions that address the range of their needs. Our global customer base has a variety of transaction options, breadth of services, and the widest selection of used equipment available to them.

Auctions and Marketplace

The tables below illustrate the various channels and brand solutions available under our Auctions and Marketplaces (“A&M”) segment.

Channels

    

Brand Solutions

    

Description of Offering

Live Onsite Auctions

 

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Live unreserved onsite auctions, with live online simulcast, where we have care, custody and control of consignors’ assets

Online Auctions and Marketplaces

 

Graphic

 

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Online marketplace for selling and buying used equipment

 

Graphic

 

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Online marketplace offering multiple price and timing options

 

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Online marketplace for the sale of government and military assets

Brokerage Service

 

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Confidential, negotiated sale of large equipment

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Gross Transaction Value (“GTV”)

We record GTV for our A&M business, which represents total proceeds from all items sold at our auctions and online marketplaces. GTV is not a measure of financial performance, liquidity, or revenue, and is not presented in our consolidated financial statements.

Contract options

We offer consignors several contract options to meet their individual needs and sale objectives. Through our A&M business, options include:

Straight commission contracts, where the consignor receives the gross proceeds from the sale less a pre-negotiated commission rate;
Guarantee contracts, where the consignor receives a guaranteed minimum amount plus an additional amount if proceeds exceed a specified level; and
Inventory contracts, where we purchase, take custody, and hold used equipment and other assets before they are resold in the ordinary course of business.

We collectively refer to guarantee and inventory contracts as underwritten or “at-risk” contracts. In 2022, our underwritten business accounted for approximately 19% of our GTV, compared to 18% in 2021 and 20% in 2020.

Value-added services

We also provide a wide array of value-added services to make the process of selling and buying equipment convenient for our customers. In addition to the other services listed in the table below, we also provide the following value-added services to our customers:

conducting title searches, where registries are commercially available, to ensure equipment is sold free and clear of all liens and encumbrances (if we are not able to deliver clear title, we provide a full refund up to the purchase price to the buyer);
making equipment available for inspection, testing, and comparison by prospective buyers;
displaying high-quality, zoomable photographs of equipment on our website;
providing 360-degree video inspection technology to increase buyer confidence in equipment being purchased;
providing industry-leading professional equipment inspections and reports;
providing free detailed equipment information on our website for most equipment;
providing access to insurance and powertrain warranty products;
providing access to commercial transportation companies and customs brokerages through our logistical services;
handling all pre-auction marketing, as well as collection and disbursement of proceeds;
providing equipment sales and rental data intelligence and performance benchmarking solutions; and
providing an innovative technology platform that supports customers' management of the equipment lifecycle and integrates parts procurement with both original equipment manufacturers and dealers.

Our IronClad Assurance equipment condition certification provides online marketplace buyers with information on the condition of the equipment that includes, but is not limited to, providing buyers with pictures and comprehensive inspection information of key systems and components.

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Other Services

The tables below illustrate the various services and brand solutions available under our other services segment.

Service

    

Brand Solutions

    

Description of Offering

Financial Service

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Loan origination service that uses a brokerage model to match loan applicants with appropriate financial lending institutions

Appraisal Service

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Unbiased, certified appraisal services

Inspection Service

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Truck and lease return inspection services

Online Listing Service

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Online equipment listing service and B2B dealer portal

Ancillary Services

 

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Repair, paint, and other make-ready services

Logistical Service

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End-to-end transportation and customs clearance solution for sellers and buyers with shipping needs

Software Service

Graphic

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Cloud-based platform to manage end-to-end disposition

Data Service

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A leading provider of construction equipment market intelligence

Parts Service

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Digital marketplace connecting equipment owners with parts manufacturers

Intellectual Property

We believe our intellectual property has significant value and is an important factor in marketing our organization, services, and website, as well as differentiating us from our competitors. We own or hold the rights to use valuable intellectual property such as trademarks, service marks, domain names and tradenames. We protect our intellectual property in Canada, the U.S., and internationally through federal, provincial, state, and common law rights, including registration of certain trademark and service marks for many of our brands, including our core brands. We also have secured patents for inventions and have registered our domain names.

We rely on contractual restrictions and rights to protect certain of our proprietary rights in products and services. Effective protection of our intellectual property can be expensive to maintain and may require litigation. We must protect our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights in many jurisdictions throughout the world. In addition, we may, from time to time, be subject to intellectual property claims, including allegations of infringement, which can be costly to defend. For a discussion of the risks involved with intellectual property litigation and enforcement of our intellectual property rights, see the related information in “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Competition

Competition Overview

The global used equipment market is highly fragmented with total annual global used equipment volumes estimated at more than $300.0 billion. We estimate the used equipment auction segment is $30 billion. Ritchie Bros. is the largest auction company with approximately $6.0 billion in GTV volume in 2022. We compete based on breadth, brand reputation, security, technology, and global reach of our services, as well as in the variety of contracts and methods and channels of selling equipment. In addition to the auction segment, other major segments include brokers, as well as the retail segment which includes OEMs, OEM dealers, rental companies and large strategic accounts. We also compete with private sales – often securing new business from equipment owners who had previously tried selling their equipment privately. Given the fragmentation in the auction market as well as upstream opportunities in private sales and retail, there is significant opportunity for growth.

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Competitive Advantages

Our key strengths provide distinct competitive advantages and have enabled us to achieve significant and profitable growth over the long term.

Global Platform

We pride ourselves on our ability to connect buyers and sellers through our digital channels, as well as a global network of over 40 auction sites in 13 countries, including the U.S., Canada, Australia, the United Arab Emirates, and the Netherlands. Our online bidding technology and Ritchie Bros. website are currently available in 10 and 22 languages, respectively. Our global presence allows us to generate deep pools of liquidity for transactions enabling global market pricing for our equipment sellers, helping to deliver strong and efficient price realization for assets.

Customer Relationships

Relationships are the core of Ritchie Bros. – delighting customers and treating them like friends while meeting their business needs. By offering an unprecedented choice of solutions that best suit our customers’ needs, making their lives easier in the process, we develop relationships that can last across generations. We take a long-term approach with our customers and as such we position our sales force to act as trusted advisors to our customers.

Breadth of Solutions

Our platform provides us with the ability to meet all the buyers’ and sellers’ unique needs in a one-stop-shop manner. By delivering choice through our disposition channels, we can work with customers as a trusted advisor to provide them each with a tailored suite of equipment disposition solutions and asset management capabilities to best meet their needs.

In addition to transaction solutions, Ritchie Bros. offers a variety of value-added services to our customers including financial services, market data, valuation insights, inspections, appraisals, commercial transportations, refurbishment and digital parts procurement.

Delivering Insights and Services Through Data & Analytics

A core part of the Ritchie Bros.’ strategy is delivering insights and services through rich data and analytics. Based on the world’s largest used equipment transaction dataset, we provide data products that allow customers to analyze market dynamics and value assets. Additionally, Rouse Services is the leading provider of rental metrics benchmarks and equipment valuations to lenders, rental companies, contractors and dealers. Rouse’s business model is built upon an extensive data ecosystem, proprietary analytics and Data Science techniques, and trusted customer relationships rooted in service and confidentiality.

We continue to invest in data science to deliver asset value predictions, generate user leads, prioritize marketing investments, interpret price trends and more. Proprietary algorithmic asset pricing is used internally to set target values and optimize marketplace operations and externally to provide users of Ritchie Bros. Asset Solutions with instant asset values on inventory. The monthly Ritchie Bros. Used Equipment Market Trends Summary report features our proprietary use of Machine Learning to provide Mix-Adjusted Price Indexes for core asset groups around the globe. Correlated with other leading economic indicators, these price indexes have been quickly adopted by customers, analysts, and manufacturers as a key insight into pricing trends. Machine Learning also supports important strategic and operational decisions such as site expansion, testing marketplace performance, and experimentation with improved formats.

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Our People

Human Capital

At December 31, 2022, we employed approximately 2,800 full-time employees (up 3.7% from 2021) and 1,400 part-time employees (down 12.5%) worldwide, representing approximately 67% and 33%, respectively, of our global workforce. We also periodically hire contractors as needed to support our auctions, various businesses, and other projects.

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Of our total full-time employees, 966 people work locally in the field to support our global auction operations (2021: 950) and 421 people are focused on sales and solutions for our customers (2021: 394).

Development and Engagement

We believe that our people are our greatest asset and that engaged employees are paramount to the health and success of our business. We invest in a variety of training, development and engagement practices to deliver on our growth agenda and create more leaders.

In 2022, we invested $1.4 million in employee development (2021: $1.7 million) and $0.6 million in development for sales employees (2021: $1.3 million). All full-time employees are encouraged to have development plans that focus on functional and career growth. We provide all our employees access to instructor-led courses, as well as a library of over 3,000 online courses, videos, books, and resources for ongoing personal, functional, and professional growth. In addition, our Tuition Reimbursement program provides tuition assistance to eligible employees for professional development courses outside of the organization. We have curated tools and resources and developed training programs to provide our leaders and employees with the skills to successfully work remotely and manage the challenges in these uncertain times. We check in with our employees through pulse surveys and communicate through distribution of a weekly newsletter named #RitchieStrong. Our newsletter, which comes directly from our CEO to all of our employees, promotes our successes, highlights our people and encourages social distancing and safety practices. Each newsletter ends with a reminder that employees can raise comments and ask questions directly to our CEO via email.

During 2022, we achieved the following objectives to strengthen the development and engagement of our people:

1.Continued roll out of PRINT®, a human motivation model, to our people-leaders and their teams to gain insights on what drives them so that they can operate at their highest level;
2.Rolled out the Diversity, Equity & Inclusion training, delivered by Eagle’s Flight Creative Training Excellence Inc., to our leaders to understand personal biases and create an inclusive environment. To date, 62% of our senior-leaders and 41% of our people-leaders have completed the training. Our facilitators became certified to deliver the training to our employees in the third quarter of 2022 and accordingly, 11% of our employees have completed the training. We will continue to deliver the training throughout 2023;   
3.Continued quarterly performance conversations to drive performance and engagement with a simplified year-end review process without performance ratings to allow for more meaningful conversations about accomplishments, values and opportunities; and
4.Launched a new sales coverage model for North America and a long tail sales team. As a result, we conducted six new hire bootcamp workshops.

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We continue to look for ways to create on the-job learning opportunities so that our employees feel invested and engaged. Employees are involved in strategic initiatives and finding ways to better serve our customers and each other.

Health & Safety

Our objective is to keep our people healthy and safe – to send everyone home, every day, the way they came to work.

All new employees are required to complete a safety onboarding training that captures our health and safety programs, our policy statement and provides an overview of our global Employee Health and Safety (“EHS”) policies and expectations. Our 2022 completion rate for the safety onboarding program was 93.4% (2021: 98%).

We also have a risk management process to support our safety orientation programs and our health and safety commitment which ensures that our employees are exposed to the lowest possible level of risk. Our risk management process begins with an annual review of all incidents from the prior year to identify trends to see if we need to address findings through changes in our policies and procedures.

Daily, our employees conduct either a field level hazard assessment or complete a risk identification card to identify risks relating to the performance of their roles. These risk identification cards are monitored by our yard managers and/or our regional operations managers and corrective actions are taken to ensure that the risk is reduced or eliminated. During 2022 we had over 17,000 (2021: 14,000) risk identification cards completed by our staff.

We also conduct annual online safety training with employees who perform certain operational tasks. In 2022, our completion rate for this training was 91% (2021: 98.5%). In 2022 we switched platforms on which the training was provided, and as a result the online safety training was only available from January to June contributing to the lower completion rate. Additionally, in 2022, managers at our sites were also required to complete a series of online courses as part of their professional development. In 2022, we had a completion rate of over 94% (2021: 94.5%).

We also measure our Total Recordable Injury Rate (“TRIR”) which measures the number of reportable incidences per 100 full-time workers during the year. Our annual TRIR goal is to meet or do better by being below the industrial average. TRIR for 2022 was 1.14 (2021: 1.38), which was below the industrial average.

 

Every region within our organization also has a Safety Steering team that provides feedback on our safety journey and assists in identifying issues or concerns that may arise. Our success in health and safety relies on everyone taking an active role in the development and implementation of our programs, participating in training and providing feedback on our progress in our safety journey.

Diversity & Inclusion

We aspire to have a culture that fosters respect, inclusion and opportunity for growth for all, where everyone feels like they belong. Specifically, we want our teams to understand the strength of diversity, the power that comes from an inclusive environment and the effect it can have on our teams, customers and stakeholders. Outlined below are the initiatives that demonstrate our dedication to diversity, equity and inclusion (“DE&I”).

Gender Diversity and Equality

We continue to be committed to gender diversity. Representation of women at our most senior executive leadership level is at 33% (2021: 40%). We also continue to maintain strong representation of women at the Board of Directors level with four (out of nine) Board members being women, representing 44% (2021: 50%) of the Board. Approximately 36% of our full-time employees are women and 64% are men, consistent with 2021.

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In 2022 and beyond, we will continue to measure and analyze recruitment efforts and strive to increase the number of candidates and hires from underrepresented groups. We plan to improve our partnership with diversity-focused organizations and increase the number of outreach campaigns to candidates from underrepresented groups.  

Employee Resource Groups (“ERG”)

Women’s LINK, our first ERG established in 2018, which focuses on gender diversity and equality, had 34 new members join in 2022 and maintains a membership of around 200 colleagues. 

Our second ERG, the Black Lives Matter (“BLM”) Committee, which was established in 2020 and has approximately 80 members, encourages courageous conversations and brings awareness to issues affecting the Black community. In late 2021, a book club was formed to further foster connections and dialogue among its members. In 2022, the BLM Committee made a donation to Title I schools in Atlanta to help students, including students from low-income families, expanded the number of profiles on Black History Month and promoted several roundtable discussions.

In 2021, we further delivered on our commitment to create a framework to support our employees’ diverse needs by establishing two new ERGs – Pride and SERVE. In 2022, the core teams for each group worked to support and bring awareness about issues facing the communities of focus for their groups as outlined below.

The Pride ERG, which focuses on creating a welcoming and inclusive workplace for Two Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning, and nonbinary (2SLGBTQ+) employees, had a positive impact in 2022 by donating funds to GATE, an international advocacy organization working towards justice and equality for transgender, gender diverse and intersex communities, in honor of International Transgender Day of Visibility. The Company also made a donation to the Human Rights Watch LGBT program, which documents and exposes abuses based on sexual orientation and gender identity worldwide, in honor of International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia & Biphobia. The ERG also participated in and celebrated Pride month.

The SERVE ERG embraces our proud community of military service members and Veteran colleagues by building awareness and providing resources to past or present military service members and their families. We became the main sponsor for the Lincoln Marathon in 2022 a celebration of the Lincoln, Nebraska community, which included sponsorship of a veteran and three members of the National Guard running the marathon. SERVE ERG also honored Memorial Day, Remembrance Day and Veteran Day by sharing service stories of Ritchie Bros. colleagues and family members who have served or are serving in the military throughout the month of November.

We are committed to investing the time and resources needed to ensure we continue to live up to our diversity, equality and inclusion vision of having a culture that fosters respect, inclusion and opportunity of growth for all, where everyone feels like they belong.

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Community Giving

The Company has been rooted in community since our founding over 60 years ago and we are committed to use our global scale and success to give back to our local communities. Our objective is to continue to engage in efforts to maintain community giving as our employees are passionate about having a meaningful impact in their communities.

In 2021, we developed a community giving framework centered around supporting local economies and people in the communities in which we operate. In 2022, we delivered on this framework by launching the #RitchieGives Community Impact platform in Canada and the United States to allow employees to sign up for volunteer opportunities and complete charitable donations with the Company matching donations. In Canada, in 2021, we established the Ritchie Bros. Community Impact fund to support causes across Canada and in 2022, in the United States, we granted funds to Local Initiatives Support Corporation’s (LISC) Bridges Careers Opportunities program, which connects unemployed and underemployed people to career and training pathways in heavy machinery related fields in the Los Angeles area, a region of expected growth.

Flexible Workplace

COVID-19 has changed the way we work and, to maintain the health and well-being of all employees, employees who are able to work remotely continued to do so throughout 2022. Flexibility has become the future of work at Ritchie Bros. as we work to support employees’ safety, health and well-being while continuing to meet business needs in a hybrid world.

Ethical Conduct

Our success and reputation are founded upon our commitment to honesty, integrity, and doing what is right—each element highlighted under our value of Integrity. Our objective is to monitor and facilitate reporting of unethical conduct. We do this by maintaining a confidential and anonymous independent third-party telephone line and web access hotline for anyone to submit concerns regarding potential code violations or other ethics-related matters without fear of repercussions. All reported matters are investigated fully and reported to the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Environmental, Social & Governance

We have advanced our commitment to Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) matters in 2022 and developed a ESG framework to help guide and communicate our high-level goals, targets and performance metrics. We also updated our ESG governance structure and identified individuals to advance and integrate our ESG objectives.

Environmental

The Company is regulated by federal, state and international environmental laws governing the protection of the environment, health and safety, the use, transport and disposal of hazardous substances and control of emissions including greenhouse gases into the environment. Compliance with these existing laws has not had a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or global competitive position. However, climate change initiatives and changing laws and regulations governing the environment may affect the supply of, the demand for, and the market values of equipment in the future.

We support the transition to a low-carbon world through enabling a circular economy of vehicles and equipment and through our efforts to manage our greenhouse gas emissions. We engage our customers to optimize the use and efficiency of equipment, to re-use, refurbish and recycle before disposition, as extending the life of heavy equipment is core to our business model. In turn, we believe this reduces waste and lessens the need to extract natural resources to produce equipment. Our largest sources of emissions are direct combustion of diesel fuel and natural gas, as well as our electricity consumption. During 2022, we invested in developing our baseline inventory of our Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions and have a target of completing our Scope 3 inventory in 2023 to allow us to set reduction targets in 2024 and in the future. In addition, we improved the efficiency and effectiveness of our operations to lessen our environmental footprint in delivering our services. We provide virtual ramping which allows large machines to be sold by video screen and eliminates emissions from transportation of equipment across the ramp. We also improved yard lanes and optimized the equipment delivery and loadout schedules to minimize equipment movement and idling.

We continue our commitment to environmental management by ensuring availability of treatment systems to manage wastewater, a recycling system to promote waste management and air filtration systems when necessary. We also promote environmentally conscious facilities including electrification at our sites and corporate offices.

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Social

Please refer to the “Our People” section for a summary of our human capital programs to promote employee engagement and development, health and safety, and diversity and inclusion, as well as our commitment to community giving.

Governance

We believe in doing the right thing for everyone involved in our business and seek to do business with third parties who follow the same core values. This is reflected in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics which is delivered through annual training to our employees, and supported by our third-party Ethics Hotline. With the exception of our CEO, our Board of Directors consists of elected independent individuals and are selected in accordance with our Director Selection Guidelines to promote diversity.

Oversight of our ESG enterprise strategy is provided by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, while our ESG Steering Committee provides strategic direction and oversight of ESG across key business functions. We have also established an ESG Working Group for the implementation of ESG initiatives across the organization.

We will continue to integrate ESG across our teams and are working to dedicate additional roles to ESG to provide support and momentum behind our ESG programs.

The Role of Technology

Implementing a modern architecture on which we can scale and grow profitably is a core strategic pillar for Ritchie Bros. The role of technology in our business continues to evolve and become more dependent as buyers adopt mobile and online channels to transact their business with us while sellers further utilize our inventory management system. We continue to invest in technology to further transition to a modern cloud-based architecture driven by microservices that allows for agility, flexibility and scalability of our solutions.

We remain focused on technology enablement to transform the way we compete, the way we work and the way we leverage technology to drive future growth. Our technology capabilities are delivering choices for our customers in the form of multiple channels for buyers and sellers, meeting customer’s asset management needs through information-rich software solutions and leveraging our rich data repository to drive strong sales and improved pricing decisions. We are also providing our customers with leading tools and capabilities to deliver full life-cycle asset management for used equipment.

Data Privacy and Security

As the role of technology and data in our business expands, so too does the importance of cybersecurity. We take protecting our customers, employees, brand, systems and data very seriously. We actively monitor and manage security risks and look to mitigate them through enterprise-wide programs, employee training and vulnerability assessments. We have made – and continue to make – investments in dedicated information security resources, leadership and technology. We continue to strengthen and enhance our programs and controls around people, processes and technology and apply risk-based strategies to enhance detection, protection and response efforts.

Our commitment to data security and privacy is demonstrated in our overall approach to governance. We are incorporating security and privacy by design and increasing awareness around the Company with support from management and our Board by taking certain actions, including the following:

We have formed a Data Privacy Committee. The oversight of the committee is to develop and approve our general strategy and policies on data privacy and data protection, assess the data privacy risks associated with our business activities, and provide direction to, and support the initiatives of, our Data Privacy Office.
Our Information Security and Policy committee meets on a monthly basis and advises on technology and legal and internal audit issues relating to security and risk reduction. This committee is responsible for reviewing and setting security policies, assessing risk and impacts of security incidents, and providing guidance and direction for security programs and strategy. The committee will be advised regarding information security assessment activities and will provide advice regarding education and communication that may be needed to support the information security policies and other compliance policy.
All eligible employees complete mandatory privacy and information-security training courses, which are refreshed annually. Through continual awareness-building, such as our Cybersecurity Awareness Month every October, we work to promote a culture that understands the critical importance of data security and privacy, areas of vulnerability and how to remain vigilant when handling data.

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We invested in enterprise leading cybersecurity tools and solutions to improve our detection, protection and response capabilities, as well as grew our internal dedicated cybersecurity team.

Seasonality

Our GTV and associated A&M segment revenues are affected by the seasonal nature of our business. GTV and A&M segment revenues tend to increase during the second and fourth calendar quarters, during which time we generally conduct more business than in the first and third calendar quarters. Given the operating leverage inherent in our business model, the second and fourth quarter also tend to produce higher operating margins, given the higher volume and revenue generated in those quarters.

Revenue Mix Fluctuations

Our revenue is comprised of service revenue and inventory sales revenue. Service revenue from A&M segment activities includes commissions earned at our auctions, online marketplaces, and private brokerage services, and various auction-related fees, including listing and buyer transaction fees. We also recognize fees from our Other Services activities as service revenue. Inventory sales revenue is recognized as part of our A&M activities and relates to revenues earned through our inventory contracts.

Inventory sales revenue can fluctuate significantly, as it changes based on whether our customers sell using a straight or guarantee commission contract, or an inventory contract. Straight or guarantee commission contracts will result in the commission being recognized as service revenue, while inventory contracts will result in the gross transaction value of the equipment sold being recorded as inventory sales revenue with the related cost recognized in cost of inventory sold. As a result, a change in the revenue mix between service revenues and revenue from inventory sales can have a significant impact on revenue growth percentages.

Governmental Regulations and Environmental Laws

Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules, and regulations throughout the world. We believe that we are compliant in all material respects with those laws, rules, and regulations that affect our business, and that such compliance does not impose a material impediment on our ability to conduct our business.

We believe that, among other things, laws, rules, and regulations related to the following list of items affect our business:

Imports and exports of equipment. Particularly, there are restrictions in the U.S. and Europe that may affect the ability of equipment owners to transport certain equipment between specified jurisdictions. Also, engine emission standards in some jurisdictions limit the operation of certain trucks and equipment in those regions.
Development or expansion of auction sites. Such activities depend upon the receipt of required licenses, permits, and other governmental authorizations. We are also subject to various local zoning requirements pertaining to the location of our auction sites, which vary among jurisdictions.
The use, storage, discharge, and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials. Under such laws, an owner or lessee of, or other person involved in, real estate may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances located on or in, or emanating from, such property, as well as related costs of investigation and property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or lessee or other person knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances.
Worker health and safety, privacy of customer information, and the use, storage, discharge, and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials.

Available Information

We file with the SEC reports on Form 10-K, Form 10-Q, Form 8-K, proxy materials and other filings required under the Exchange Act. Investors may access any materials we file with the SEC through the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

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In addition, investors and others should note that we announce material financial information using our company website (www.ritchiebros.com) and investor relations website (https://investor.ritchiebros.com), which host our SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls, and webcasts. Information about Ritchie Bros., its business, and its results of operations may also be announced by posts on the following social media channels:

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RitchieBros
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/ritchie-bros/  
Twitter: https://twitter.com/RitchieBros  
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/ritchiebros  

The information that we post on these social media channels could be deemed to be material information. As a result, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in Ritchie Bros. to review the information that we post on these social media channels. These channels may be updated from time to time on Ritchie Bros.’s investor relations website.

We are providing these website addresses solely for the information of investors, and the information on or accessible through our websites and social media channels is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Also available for investors in the Governance section of our investor relations website are the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for our directors, officers and employees (“Code of Conduct”), Board Mandate, Audit Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Diversity Policy, Shareholder Engagement Policy, Articles and Bylaws, Majority Voting Policy and Board Chair Role and Description. Additional information related to Ritchie Bros. is also available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

As a Canada Business Corporations Act (“CBCA”) company with our principal place of business in Canada, U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us. Please see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers,” which is incorporated into this Item 1 by this reference.

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ITEM 1A:    RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should carefully consider each of the risks described below before purchasing our common shares. The risk factors set forth below are not the only risks that may affect our business. Our business could also be affected by additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could materially suffer. As a result, the trading price of our common shares could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Information in this section may be considered “forward-looking statements.” See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of certain qualifications regarding such statements.

Risks Related to the Proposed Acquisition of IAA

The pendency of our acquisition of IAA or our failure to complete such acquisition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and stock price.

On November 7, 2022, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization with IAA (the “Merger Agreement”), amended on January 22, 2023, providing for our acquisition of IAA. Consummation of the acquisition is subject to the satisfaction of various conditions, including, among other things, (1) the approval of the issuance of our common shares by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of our outstanding common shares, (2) the adoption of the Merger Agreement by holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of IAA’s common stock, and (3) other customary closing conditions.

The acquisition may be delayed, and may ultimately not be completed, due to a number of factors, including the failure to satisfy these conditions to the completion of the acquisition, or the possibility that a material adverse effect on our business or IAA’s business would permit IAA or us, respectively, not to close the acquisition. There is no assurance that all of the various conditions will be satisfied or waived, or that the acquisition will be completed on the proposed terms, within the expected timeframe, or at all. Also, potential litigation filed against us or IAA could prevent or delay the completion of the acquisition or result in the payment of damages following completion of the acquisition.

In the event that the proposed acquisition is not consummated or is materially delayed for any reason, we will have spent considerable time and resources, and incurred substantial costs related to the acquisition, many of which must be paid even if the acquisition is not completed. If the acquisition is not completed, our business and shareholders would be exposed to additional risks, including, but not limited to the following: (a) to the extent that the market price of our common shares reflects an assumption that the acquisition will be completed, the price of our common shares could decrease if the acquisition is not completed; (b) investor confidence could decline, litigation could be brought against us, relationships with existing and prospective sellers, customers, service providers, investors and other business partners may be adversely impacted, we may be unable to retain key personnel, and profitability may be adversely impacted due to costs incurred in connection with the pending acquisition; and (c) the requirement that we pay a termination fee of $189 million if the Merger Agreement is terminated under certain circumstances.

Also, during the period prior to the closing of the acquisition, our business will be exposed to certain inherent risks due to the potential impact of the announcement or pendency of the acquisition on our business, financial condition and operating results, including, but not limited to the following: (a) the possibility of disruption to our business and operations, including diversion of management attention and resources; (b) the inability to attract and retain key personnel, and the possibility that our current employees could be distracted and their productivity decline, due to uncertainty regarding the pending acquisition; (c) the inability to pursue alternative business opportunities or make material changes to our business pending the completion of the acquisition; (d)the amount of the costs, fees, expenses and charges related to the acquisition; and (e) other developments beyond our control, including, but not limited to, changes in domestic or global economic conditions, capital markets and interest rates that may affect the timing or success of the proposed acquisition.

While the Merger Agreement is in effect, we are subject to restrictions on our business activities.

While the Merger Agreement is in effect, we are generally required to use reasonable efforts to conduct our business in the ordinary course in all material respects, and are restricted from taking certain actions set forth in the Merger Agreement without IAA’s prior consent. These limitations include, among other things, certain restrictions on our ability to amend our organizational documents, acquire other businesses and assets that would reasonably be expected to delay or impair the consummation of the acquisition, dispose of certain assets, reclassify or issue certain securities, and pay dividends (other than our regular quarterly dividend). These restrictions

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could prevent us from pursuing strategic business opportunities and taking actions with respect to our business that we may consider advantageous and may, as a result, materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may experience difficulties in integrating our operations with those of IAA and realizing the expected benefits of the acquisition.

The success of the proposed acquisition of IAA, if completed, will depend in part on our ability to realize the anticipated business opportunities and cost synergies from combining with IAA in an efficient and effective manner. We may not realize these business opportunities and cost synergies to the extent expected or at all. Further, our management might have its attention diverted while trying to integrate operations and corporate and administrative infrastructures. The post-closing integration process could take longer than anticipated and could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses, tax costs or inefficiencies, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, employees or other third parties, or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction, and could harm our financial performance. If we are unable to successfully or timely integrate the operations of IAA’s business with our business, we may incur unanticipated liabilities and be unable to realize the revenue growth, synergies and other anticipated benefits resulting from the proposed transaction, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We will incur a substantial amount of debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and financial condition.

We will incur significant debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, including borrowing up to $2.8 billion under a bridge loan facility, inclusive of $1.8 billion of bridge commitments with term A loan commitments, or pursuant to other permanent financing that replaces such facility, which may include the issuance of debt securities and/or one or more senior term loan facilities. On an expected combined company basis, we expect that together with IAA, we would have approximately $3.4 billion of indebtedness, excluding $709.8 million of undrawn commitments under our revolving credit facility. Our ability to make payments on our debt, fund our other liquidity needs and make planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our historical financial results have been, and we anticipate that our future financial results will be, subject to fluctuations. Our ability to generate cash is subject in part to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot guarantee that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from our operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to make payments of our debt, fund other liquidity needs and make planned capital expenditures. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. The degree to which we are currently leveraged and will be leveraged following the completion of the acquisition of IAA could have important consequences for shareholders. For example, it could: (a) limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements; (b) require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of debt service, reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, dividends and other corporate purposes; (c) increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic or industry conditions; (d) expose us to the risk of increased interest rates for any borrowings at variable rates of interest; (e) limit our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our industry; and (f) place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to businesses in our industry that have less debt.

Additionally, our debt agreements, including any agreements that we may enter into in connection with the proposed acquisition of IAA, may contain a number of covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. Any failure to comply with covenants in the instruments governing our debt could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, would have a material adverse effect on us.

Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation and integration of the acquisition of IAA.

We expect to incur one-time costs in connection with integrating our operations, products and personnel with those of IAA, in addition to costs related directly to completing the acquisition. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred as we integrate our business with IAA following the closing. Although we expect the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies

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related to the integration of our operations with IAA, may offset incremental transaction and transaction-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term or to the extent anticipated.

Risk Related to Our Business

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.

We have acquired, and may continue to acquire, businesses that have previously operated independently from us. The integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses, including IAA, is intended to result in financial and operational benefits, including certain tax and run-rate synergies. There can be no assurance, however, regarding when or the extent to which we will be able to realize these and other benefits. Integration may also be difficult, unpredictable and subject to delay because of possible company culture conflicts and different opinions on future business development. We may be required to integrate or, in some cases, replace, numerous systems, including those involving management information, purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, billing, employee benefits, payroll and regulatory compliance, many of which may be dissimilar. Difficulties associated with the integration of acquired businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, in connection with acquisitions, we have assumed, and may assume in connection with future acquisitions, certain potential liabilities. To the extent such liabilities are not identified by us or to the extent indemnifications obtained from third parties are insufficient to cover such liabilities, these liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business.

For a description of risks related to our pending acquisition of IAA, see “Risks Related to the Proposed Acquisition of IAA” below.

Damage to our reputation could harm our business.

One of our founding principles is that we operate a fair and transparent business, and consistently act with integrity. Maintaining a positive reputation is key to our ability to attract and maintain customers, investors and employees. Damage to our reputation could cause significant harm to our business. Harm to our reputation could arise in a number of ways, including, but not limited to, employee conduct which is not aligned with our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (and associated Company policies around behavioural expectations) or our Company’s core values, safety incidents, failure to maintain customer service standards, loss of trust in the fairness of our sales processes, and other technology or compliance failures.

We may incur losses as a result of our guarantee and inventory contracts and advances to consignors.

Our most common type of auction contract is a straight commission contract, under which we earn a pre-negotiated, fixed commission rate on the gross sales price of the consigned equipment at auction. We use straight commission contracts when we act as agent for consignors. In recent years, a majority of our annual business has been conducted on a straight commission basis. In certain other situations, we will enter into underwritten transactions and either offer to (a) guarantee a minimum level of sale proceeds to the consignor, regardless of the ultimate selling price of the consignment; or (b) purchase the equipment outright from the seller for sale through one of our sales channels.

We determine the level of guaranteed proceeds or inventory purchase price based on appraisals performed on equipment by our internal personnel. Inaccurate appraisals could result in guarantees or inventory values that exceed the realizable auction proceeds. In addition, a change in market values could also result in guarantee or inventory values exceeding the realizable auction proceeds. If auction proceeds are less than the guaranteed amount, our commission will be reduced, and we could potentially incur a loss, and, if auction proceeds are less than the purchase price we paid for equipment that we take into inventory temporarily, we will incur a loss. Because a majority of our auctions are unreserved, there is no way for us to protect against these types of losses by bidding on or acquiring any of the items at such auctions. In addition, we do not hold inventory indefinitely waiting for market conditions to improve. If our exposure to underwritten contracts increases, this risk would be compounded.

Occasionally, we advance to consignors a portion of the estimated auction proceeds prior to the auction. We generally make these advances only after taking possession of the assets to be auctioned and upon receipt of a security interest in the assets to secure the obligation. If we were unable to auction the assets or if auction proceeds were less than amounts advanced, we could incur a loss. Additionally, we have two vendor contracts with the U.S. Government’s Defense Logistics Agency (“DLA”) pursuant to which we acquire, manage and resell certain assets of the DLA. Each of the DLA contracts obliges the Company to purchase rolling and non-

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rolling stock assets in an amount and of a type over which we have limited ability to control. In many cases, the type of assets purchased are not what we typically sell through any of our other channels. Although the prices we pay for the non-rolling stock inventory are a fraction of the original acquisition value, we may not have the ability to attract buyers for those assets and we may be unable to sell those assets on a timely basis or at all. This would have an adverse effect on our financial results.

The availability and performance of our technology infrastructure, including our websites, is critical to our business and continued growth.

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our websites, online bidding service, auction management systems, enterprise resource planning system, transaction processing systems, network infrastructure and customer relationship management system are important to our reputation, our business and our continued growth. We currently rely on both our own proprietary technology and licensed on-premise systems, as well as third-party cloud computing platform providers located in the United States and other countries. The technology and systems we rely on may experience service interruptions or degradation because of hardware or software defects or malfunctions, denial of service or ransomware attacks and other cybersecurity events, human error and natural events beyond our control. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our recovery planning may not be sufficient for all possible disruptions. Further, licensed hardware, software and cloud computing platforms may not continue to be available at reasonable prices, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of these hardware, software or cloud computing platforms or the loss of the functionality of our internet systems could significantly increase our expenses, damage our reputation and otherwise result in delays in provisioning of our services. Our business and results of operations would be particularly harmed if we were to lose access to or the functionality of our internet systems for any reason, especially if such loss of service prevented internet bidders from effectively participating in one of our auctions.

Consumer behavior is rapidly changing, and if we are unable to successfully adapt to consumer preferences and develop and maintain a relevant and reliable inventory management and multichannel disposition experience for our customers, our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.

Our business continues to evolve into a one-stop inventory management and multichannel disposition company where customers can buy, sell, or list equipment, when, how, and where they choose- both onsite and online, and manage their existing fleets and/or inventory using our online inventory management tools. As a result of this evolution, increasingly we interact with our customers across a variety of different channels, including live auction, online, through mobile technologies, including the Ritchie Bros. mobile app, social media, and inventory management systems. Our customers are increasingly using tablets and mobile phones to make purchases online and to get detailed equipment information for assets that they own or are interested in purchasing. Our customers also engage with us online, including through social media, by providing feedback and public commentary about all aspects of our business. Consumer shopping patterns are rapidly changing and our success depends on our ability to anticipate and implement innovations in customer experience and logistics in order to appeal to customers who increasingly rely on multiple channels to meet their equipment management and disposition needs. Our ability to provide a high quality and efficient customer experience is also dependent on external factors over which we may have little or no control, including, without limitation, the reliability and performance of the equipment sold in our marketplaces and the performance of third-party carriers who transport purchased equipment on behalf of buyers. If for any reason we are unable to implement our inventory management, data solutions, bidding tools and other multichannel initiatives, provide a convenient and consistent experience for our customers across all channels, or provide our customers the services they want, when and where they want them at a compelling value proposition, then our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.

We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of certain of our platforms and disrupt our business.

Our analytics teams rely on asset, pricing and other data including personal data provided to us by our customers and other third parties. Some of this data is provided to us pursuant to third-party data sharing policies and terms of use, under data sharing agreements by third-party providers or by customers with consent. If in the future any of these parties could change their data sharing policies and terms of use, including by making them more restrictive, terminating or not renewing agreements, or, if customers revoke their consent, any of which could result in the loss of, or significant impairment to, our ability to collect and provide useful data or related services to our customers.

These third parties could also interpret our data collection and use policies or practices as being inconsistent with their policies or business objectives, or lose confidence in our data protection and privacy practices, which could result in the loss of our ability to

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collect this data. Any such changes could impair our ability to deliver our analytics service to our customers in the manner currently anticipated or at all, impairing the return on investment that our customers derive from using our analytics platform and related products, as well as adversely affecting our business and our ability to generate revenue.

Government regulation of the Internet and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes in this or other regulations could substantially harm our business and results of operations.

We are subject to federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules and regulations governing the internet and e-commerce. Existing and future laws and regulations may impede the growth of the internet, e-commerce or other services, and increase the cost of doing business, including providing online auction services. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, tariffs, user privacy, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, distribution, electronic contracts, and other communications, consumer protection, broadband residential internet access and the characteristics and quality of services. It is not always clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, digital, sales and similar taxes, libel, and personal privacy apply to the Internet and e-commerce. Changes to laws, rules and regulations and unfavorable resolution of these issues may harm our business and results of operations.

If our ability, or the ability of our third party service partners, cloud computing platform providers or third party data center hosting facilities, to safeguard the reliability, integrity and confidentiality of our and their information technology systems is compromised, if unauthorized access is obtained to our systems or customers’, suppliers', counterparties' and employees' confidential information, or if authorized access is blocked or disabled, we may incur significant reputational harm, legal exposure, or a negative financial impact.

We rely on information technology (“IT”) resources to manage and operate our business, including maintaining proprietary databases containing sensitive and confidential information about our customers, suppliers, counterparties and employees (which may include personal information and credit information) and utilizing approved third-party technology providers to support the management and operation of IT systems and infrastructure. As the malicious tools and techniques used to breach, obtain unauthorized access to or impair IT systems and devices and the data processed thereby become more sophisticated and change frequently, the risk of a cybersecurity event increases, given that we may not be able to anticipate these malicious tools and techniques or to implement adequate preventative and protective measures. Unauthorized parties have in the past, and may also in the future, attempt to gain access to our and our providers’ primary and backup systems or facilities through various means, including hacking into IT systems or facilities, fraud, trickery or other means of deceiving our and their employees or contractors. Although we have policies restricting the access to the personal and confidential information we store, there is a risk that these policies may not be effective in all cases. Ransomware attacks are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe, and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational loss, and diversion of funds. Further, breaches experienced by other companies may also be leveraged against us and sophisticated actors can mask their attacks, making them increasingly difficult to identify and prevent. There can be no assurance that impacts from these incidents will not be material or significant in the future.

In addition, our limited control over our customers may affect the security and integrity of our IT systems and create financial or legal exposure. For example, our customers may accidentally disclose their passwords, use insecure passwords, or store them on a device that is lost or stolen, providing bad actors with access to a customer’s account and the possible means to redirect customer payments. Further, users on our platforms could have vulnerabilities on their own devices that are entirely unrelated to our systems and platforms but could mistakenly attribute their own vulnerabilities to us. Under credit card payment rules and our contracts with credit card processors, if there is a breach of payment card information used to process transactions, we could be liable to the payment card issuing banks for certain fraudulent credit card transactions and other payment disputes with customers, including the cost of issuing new cards and related expenses. If we were liable for a significant number of fraudulent transactions or unable to accept payment cards, our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

Although we implement, maintain and adjust information security measures to mitigate our risks with respect to IT-related cybersecurity incidents, there can be no assurance that these measures will ensure that our operations are not disrupted, that we will prevent an attack from occurring in the future, or that our internal controls, for instance relating to user access management, will perform as intended to prevent unauthorized access to our systems and data. Any breach of our IT systems may have a material adverse impact on our business, the assessment of the performance of our internal control environment, results of operations, reputation, stock price and our ability to access capital markets, and may also be deemed to contribute to a material weakness in internal controls over financial reporting.

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Security events, hacking or other malicious or surreptitious activity (or the perception that such activities have occurred), could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in the security of our services and thereby a loss of customers, and expose us to a risk of loss, governmental investigations and enforcement actions or litigation and possible liability for damages. We may be required to make significant expenditures and divert management attention to monitor, detect and prevent security events, to remediate known or potential security vulnerabilities, or to alleviate problems caused by any security events. In addition, circumvention of our security measures may result in the loss or misappropriation of valuable business data, intellectual property or trade secret information, misappropriation of our customers’ or employees’ personal information, damage to our computing infrastructure, networks and stored data, service delays, key personnel being unable to perform duties or communicate throughout the organization, loss of sales, significant costs for data restoration and other adverse impacts on our business. Further, such a breach may require us to incur significant expenses to notify governmental agencies, individuals or other third parties pursuant to various privacy and security laws.

The costs of mitigating cybersecurity risks are significant and are likely to increase in the future. Our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to interruption or loss of valuable business data and information of our customers and employees (among others). Data stored by our third party providers might be improperly accessed or unavailable due to a variety of events beyond our control, including, but not limited to, employee error or negligence, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hackers and other security issues. Additionally, if any of our third-party technology providers violate applicable laws or our contracts or policies, such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business. These issues are likely to become costlier as we grow. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to reimburse us for losses caused by security breaches, and we may not be able to fully collect, if at all, under these insurance policies.

Our future expenses may increase significantly and our operations and ability to expand may be limited as a result of licenses, laws and regulations governing auction sites, environmental protection, international trade and other matters.

A variety of federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules and regulations throughout the world apply to our business, relating to, among other things, tax and accounting rules, the auction business, imports and exports of equipment, property ownership laws, licensing, worker safety, privacy and security of customer information, land use and the use, storage, discharge and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials. Complying with revisions to laws, rules and regulations could result in an increase in expenses and a deterioration of our financial performance. Failure to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations could result in substantial liability to us, suspension or cessation of some or all of our operations, restrictions on our ability to expand at present locations or into new locations, requirements for the acquisition of additional equipment or other significant expenses or restrictions.

The development or expansion of auction sites depends upon receipt of required licenses, permits and other governmental authorizations. Our inability to obtain these required items could harm our business. Additionally, changes or concessions required by regulatory authorities could result in significant delays in, or prevent completion of, such development or expansion. International bidders and consignors could be deterred from participating in our auctions if governmental bodies impose additional export or import regulations or additional duties, taxes or other charges on exports or imports. Reduced participation by international bidders and consignors could reduce GTV and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Under some environmental laws, an owner, operator or lessee of, or other person involved in, real estate may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances located on or in, or emanating from, the real estate, and related costs of investigation and property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner, operator, lessee or other person knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of the hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental contamination may exist at our owned or leased auction sites, or at other sites on which we may conduct auctions, or properties that we may be selling by auction, from prior activities at these locations or from neighboring properties. In addition, auction sites that we acquire or lease in the future may be contaminated, and future use of or conditions on any of our properties or sites could result in contamination. The costs related to claims arising from environmental contamination of any of these properties could harm our financial condition and results of operations.

There are restrictions in the United States, Canada, Europe and other jurisdictions in which we do business that may affect the ability of equipment owners to transport certain equipment between specified jurisdictions or the salability of older equipment. One example of these restrictions is environmental certification requirements in the United States, which prevent non-certified equipment from entering into commerce in the United States. In addition, engine emission standards in some jurisdictions limit the operation of certain trucks and equipment in those markets.

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These restrictions, or the adoption of more stringent environmental laws, including laws enacted in response to climate change, could inhibit materially the ability of customers to ship equipment to or from our auction sites, reducing our GTV and harming our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Losing the services of one or more key personnel or the failure to attract, train and retain personnel could materially affect our business.

Our future success largely depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain skilled employees in all areas of our business, as well as to design an appropriate organization structure and plan effectively for succession. Although we actively manage our human resource risks, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts. If we fail to attract, develop and retain skilled employees in all areas of our business, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, and we may not achieve our growth or performance objectives.

The growth and performance of our business depends to a significant extent on the efforts and abilities of our employees. Many of our key employees have extensive experience with our business. These employees have knowledge and an understanding of our company and industry that cannot be readily duplicated. The loss of any key personnel, or the inability to replace any lost personnel with equally trained personnel, could impair our ability to execute our business plan and growth strategy, cause us to lose customers and reduce our revenues. In addition, the success of our strategic initiatives to expand our business to complimentary service offerings will require new competencies in many positions, and our management and employees will have to adapt and learn new skills and capabilities. To the extent they are unable or unwilling to make these transformational changes or we are unable to attract new employees who are able to do so, we may be unable to realize the full benefits of our strategic initiatives. We do not maintain key person insurance on the lives of any of our executive officers or other key personnel. As a result, we would have no way to cover the financial loss if we were to lose the services of such employees. This uncertainty may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain key employees.

If any of our key personnel were to join a competitor or form a competing company, existing and potential customers could choose to form business relationships with that competitor instead of us. There can be no assurance that confidentiality, non-solicitation, non-competition or similar agreements signed by our former directors, officers, or employees will be effective in preventing a loss of business.

Failure to maintain safe sites could materially affect our business and reputation.

Our employees and customers are often in close proximity with mechanized equipment, moving vehicles and chemical and other industrial substances. Our auction sites and warehouses are, therefore, potentially dangerous places and involve the risk of accidents, environmental incidents and other incidents which may expose us to investigations and litigation or could negatively affect the perception of customer and employee safety, health and security. Even in the absence of any incidents, unsafe site conditions could lead to employee turnover or harm our reputation generally, each of which would affect our financial performance. While safety is a primary focus of our business and is critical to our reputation and performance, our failure to implement safety procedures or implement ineffective safety procedures would increase this risk and our operations and results from operations may be adversely impacted.

Income and commodity tax amounts, including tax expense, may be materially different than expected, and there is a trend by global tax collection authorities towards the adoption of more aggressive laws, regulations, interpretations and audit practices.

Our global operations are subject to tax interpretations, regulations, and legislation in the numerous jurisdictions in which we operate, all of which are subject to continual change.

We accrue and pay income taxes and have significant income tax assets, liabilities, and expense that are estimates based primarily on the application of those interpretations, regulations and legislation, and the amount and timing of future taxable income as well as our use of applicable accounting principles. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our estimates and reserves are sufficient. The timing concerning the monetization of deferred income tax amounts is uncertain, as they are dependent on our future earnings and other events. Our deferred income tax amounts are valued based upon enacted income tax rates in effect at the time, which can be changed by governments in the future.

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The audit and review activities of tax authorities affect the ultimate determination of the actual amounts of commodity taxes payable or receivable, income taxes payable or receivable, deferred income tax assets and liabilities, and income tax expense.

There is no assurance that taxes will be payable as anticipated or that the amount or timing of receipt or use of the tax-related assets will be as currently expected. Our experience indicates that taxation authorities are increasing the frequency and depth of audits and reviews. The Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) has been conducting audits for our 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2019 taxation years. On February 13, 2023, the CRA issued a proposal letter to Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers (International) Ltd., asserting that one of its Luxembourg subsidiaries was resident in Canada from 2010 to 2015 and that its worldwide income should be subject to Canadian income taxation. In the event that the CRA issues a notice of assessment or reassessment and a court of competent jurisdiction makes a final determination that the income of the Luxembourg subsidiary for 2010 through 2015 was subject to Canadian income tax laws, the Company may ultimately be liable for additional total Canadian federal and provincial income tax, interest and penalties for such period which could have a material negative effect on our operations. The CRA may also challenge the manner in which the Company has filed its tax returns and reported its income with respect to 2016 to 2020 taxation years and may assert that the income of the Luxembourg subsidiary was subject to Canadian income tax because the Luxembourg subsidiary was also resident in Canada during these years. The Company could then incur additional income taxes, penalties and interest which could have a material negative effect on our operations. In addition, future tax authority determinations, including changes to tax interpretations, regulations, legislation or jurisprudence, could have a material impact to our financial position. The fact that we operate internationally increases our exposure in this regard given the multiple forms of taxation imposed upon us. Further and more generally, there has been increased political, media and tax authority focus on taxation in recent years; the intent of which appears to be to enhance transparency and address perceived tax avoidance. As such, in addition to tax risk from a financial perspective, our activities may expose us to reputational risk.

Our substantial international operations expose us to additional risks that could harm our business, including foreign exchange rate fluctuations that could harm our results of operations.

We conduct business in many countries around the world and intend to continue to expand our presence in international markets, including emerging markets.

Although we report our financial results in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our revenues and expenses are generated outside the U.S., primarily in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. In particular, a significant portion of our revenues are earned, and expenses incurred, in the Canadian dollar and the Euro. The results of operations of our foreign subsidiaries are translated from local currency into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. If the U.S. dollar weakens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency denominated revenues or expenses will result in increased U.S. dollar denominated revenues and expenses. Similarly, if the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, particularly the Canadian dollar and the Euro, our translation of foreign currency denominated revenues or expenses will result in lower U.S. dollar denominated revenues and expenses. We do not currently engage in foreign currency hedging arrangements on any of our revenues or expenses. Fluctuating currency exchange rates may negatively affect our business in international markets and our related results of operations.

In addition, currency exchange rate fluctuations between the different countries in which we conduct our operations impact the purchasing power of buyers, the motivation of consignors, asset values and asset flows between various countries, including those in which we do not have operations. These factors and other global economic conditions may harm our business and our results of operations.

Other risks inherent in doing business internationally include, but are not limited to the following: (a) trade barriers, trade regulations, currency controls, import or export regulations, and other restrictions on doing business freely; (b) local labor, environmental, tax, and other laws and regulations, and the potential for adverse changes in such laws and regulations or the interpretations thereof; (c) difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations; (d) economic, political, social or labor instability or unrest; (e) terrorism, war, hostage-taking, or military repression; (f) corruption; (g) expropriation and nationalization, or difficulties in enforcing or protecting our property rights, including with respect to intellectual property; (h) increased exposure to high rates of inflation; and (i) unpredictability as to litigation in foreign jurisdictions and enforcement of local laws.

If we violate the complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, we may face fines, criminal actions or sanctions, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and damage to our reputation. These risks inherent in our international operations increase our costs of doing business internationally and may result in a material adverse effect on our operations or profitability.

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Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations governing international trade, including export control regulations.

Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations, including the Export Administration Regulations, or EAR, maintained by the U.S. Department of Commerce, economic and trade sanctions maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, and similar laws and regulations in Canada, the UK and the EU. These laws and regulations restrict us from providing services to, or otherwise engaging in direct or indirect transactions or dealings with, certain countries, territories, governments, and persons. We have implemented procedures designed to maintain compliance with these laws, including monitoring, on an automatic and manual basis, the identity and location of potential sellers and buyers. We can offer no assurances that these procedures will always be effective.

If we were to violate applicable export control or sanctions, we could be subject to administrative or criminal penalties which, in certain circumstances, could be material. We could be subject to damages, financial penalties, denial of export privileges, incarceration of our employees, other restrictions on our operations, and reputational harm. Further, any action on the part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, OFAC or other applicable regulator against the company or any of our employees for potential violations of these laws could have a negative impact on our reputation, business, operating results and prospects.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, or the CFPOA, and similar laws associated with our activities outside of the U.S. could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the FCPA, the CFPOA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. §201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act of 2010, or the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities or facilitate the buying and selling of equipment, including the EU. We face significant risks if we fail to comply with the FCPA, the CFPOA and other anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws that prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to foreign government officials, political parties or candidates, employees of public international organizations, and private-sector recipients for the corrupt purpose of obtaining or retaining business, directing business to any person, or securing any advantage. In many foreign countries, particularly in countries with developing economies, it may be a local custom that businesses engage in practices that are prohibited by the FCPA, the CFPOA or other applicable laws and regulations. In addition, we leverage various third parties to sell our solutions and conduct our business abroad. We and our other third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and other corporate policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, which often carry substantial penalties.

Any violation of the FCPA, other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions and, in the case of the FCPA, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, which could have a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.

We are pursuing a long-term growth strategy that may include acquisitions and developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, which requires upfront investment with no guarantee of long-term returns.

We continue to pursue a long-term growth strategy, including developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, that contemplates upfront investments, including (i) investments in emerging markets that may not generate profitable growth in the near term, (ii) adding new business and information solutions, and (iii) developing our people. Planning for future growth requires investments to be made now in anticipation of growth that may not materialize, and if our strategies do not successfully address the needs of current and potential customers, we may not be successful in maintaining or growing our GTV and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted. We may also not be able to improve our systems and controls as a result of increased costs, technological challenges, or lack of qualified employees. A large component of our selling, general and administrative expenses is considered fixed costs that we will incur regardless of any GTV growth. There can be no assurances that our GTV and revenues will be maintained or grow at a more rapid rate than our fixed costs.

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Part of our long-term growth strategy includes growth through acquisitions, which poses a number of risks. We may not be successful in identifying appropriate acquisition candidates, consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms or integrating any newly acquired or expanded business with our current operations. Additionally, significant costs may be incurred in connection with any acquisition and our integration of such businesses with our business, including legal, accounting, financial advisory and other costs. We may also not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, such acquisition. We cannot guarantee that any future business acquisitions will be pursued, that any acquisitions that are pursued will be consummated, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits of completed acquisitions.

We are regularly subject to general litigation and other claims, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to general litigation and other claims that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The outcome and impact of such litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, but regardless of the outcome, these proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. While the results of these claims have not historically had a material effect on us, we may not be able to defend ourselves adequately against these claims in the future, and these proceedings may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

We may also be subject to intellectual property claims, which are extremely costly to defend, could require us to pay significant damages, and could limit our ability to use certain technologies in the future. Companies in the internet and technology industries are frequently subject to litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights.

Third-party intellectual property rights may cover significant aspects of our technologies or business methods or block us from expanding our offerings. Any intellectual property claim against us, with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive to settle or litigate and could divert the attention of our management. Litigation regarding intellectual property rights is inherently uncertain due to the complex issues involved, and we may not be successful in defending ourselves in such matters.

Many potential litigants, including some patent-holding companies, have the ability to dedicate substantial resources to enforcing their intellectual property rights. Any claims successfully brought against us could subject us to significant liability for damages, and we may be required to stop using technology or other intellectual property alleged to be in violation of a third party’s rights. We also might be required to seek a license for third-party intellectual property. Such a license may be unavailable or may require us to pay significant royalties or submit to unreasonable terms, which would increase our operating expenses. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant time and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for any allegedly infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit our service and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results could harm our business.

Privacy concerns and our compliance with current and evolving domestic or foreign laws and regulations regarding the processing of personal information and other data may increase our costs, impact our marketing efforts, or decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and our failure to comply with those laws and regulations may expose us to liability and reputational harm.

Governments around the world continue to propose and adopt new, or modify existing, laws and regulations addressing data privacy, data protection, data sovereignty and the processing of data, generally. Although we monitor the regulatory environment and have invested in addressing these developments, such as through our cybersecurity and privacy readiness programs, these laws may require us to incur further compliance costs to make changes to our practices, products and services to enable us or our customers to meet the new legal requirements. In addition, if we are found to have breached any such laws or regulations, we may be subject to enforcement actions that require us to change our practices, products and services, which may negatively impact our revenue, as well as expose us to liability through new or higher potential penalties and fines for non-compliance, civil and criminal penalties, and litigation for alleged violations, as well as adverse publicity that could cause our customers to lose trust in us and negatively impact our reputation and business in a manner that harms our financial position. These new or proposed laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations that may change over time resulting in further compliance costs, as well as diversion of resources to monitor and address developments. New and proposed laws and regulations may also be inconsistent among jurisdictions or conflict with other laws and regulations. As a result, these requirements and other potential self-regulatory standards and industry codes of conduct could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and otherwise process data or, in some cases, impact our ability to offer certain services in certain locations, to deploy our software or data solutions, to market to current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from customers’ online activity and data globally.

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We believe that laws and regulations in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia the European Union and in other jurisdictions will be increasingly restrictive in the field of data privacy and protection and will in turn result in an increase in regulatory burdens for us to address to continue meeting our customers’ expectations, in particular in relation to the sharing of personal information with third parties, the use of machine learning and big data, and the tracking of online activities for advertising. As our capacity to process large volumes of data increases, customer sentiment towards increased transparency and control and further interpretive guidance from regulatory agencies may require us to change our operations and practices in a manner adverse to our business. In this uncertain and shifting regulatory and trust climate, even the perception that the privacy and security of personal information are not satisfactorily addressed or do not meet regulatory requirements could result in adverse publicity and reputation loss.

Our business continuity plan may not operate effectively in the event of a significant interruption of our business.

We have implemented a formal business continuity plan covering most significant aspects of our business that would take effect in the event of a significant interruption to our business, or the loss of key systems as a result of a natural or other disaster. Although we have tested our business continuity plan as part of the implementation, there can be no assurance that it will operate effectively or that our business, results of operations and financial condition will not be materially affected in the event of a significant interruption of our business. If we were subject to a disaster or serious security breach, it could materially damage our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur as a result of our operations.

We maintain property and general liability insurance. This insurance may not remain available to us at commercially reasonable rates, and the amount of our coverage may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. Our auctions generally involve the operation of large equipment close to a large number of people, and despite our focus on safe work practices, an accident could damage our facilities, injure auction attendees and harm our reputation and our business. In addition, if we were held liable for amounts exceeding the limits of our insurance coverage or for claims outside the scope of our coverage, the resulting costs could harm our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business operations, results of operations, cash flows and financial performance may continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Since 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world, including in all of the countries in which we operate. National, state, provincial and local governments have responded to COVID-19 in a variety of ways, including, without limitation, by declaring states of emergency, restricting people from gathering in groups or interacting within a certain physical distance (i.e., social distancing), and in certain cases, ordering businesses to close or limit operations or people to stay at home. Although we have recently begun to offer in-person onsite bidding alongside online-only bidding at some of our auction events, transportation costs and supply chain delays remain elevated, and further restrictions or the rollback of reopening measures due to higher infection rates may further disrupt our operations and the operations of our partners and customers. In addition, COVID-19 has also adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, the businesses and needs of our customers including their ability to secure financing. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business remains uncertain at this time and will depend on future developments, including the severity of evolving variants, availability, efficacy and distribution of various vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, as well as any longer-term effects of the pandemic on the global economy, including in the industries our customers serve.

Certain global conditions may affect our ability to conduct successful events.

Like most businesses with global operations, we are subject to the risk of certain global or regional adverse conditions, such as pandemics or other disease outbreaks, including COVID-19, or natural disasters including extreme weather or other events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, forest fires or floods that could hinder our ability to conduct our scheduled auctions, restrict our customers’ travel patterns or their desire to attend auctions or impact our online operations, including disrupting the internet or mobile networks or one or more of our service providers. If any of these conditions were to occur, we may not be able to generate sufficient equipment consignments to sustain our business or to attract enough bidders to our auctions to achieve world fair market values for the items we sell. This could harm our financial condition and results of operations. To the extent that climate change causes rising sea levels, increased intensity of weather, and increased frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding, the risks noted above may increase.

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Financial Risk Factors

Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements, reduce investor confidence, and adversely impact our stock price.

As a public company, we are required to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment is required to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting identified by our management. We are also required to have our independent registered public accounting firm issue an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis.

As previously reported, during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. These material weaknesses were remediated as of December 31, 2021, and we did not identify any additional material weaknesses during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. However, we may identify additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future, and, if we do, we will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future.

Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude in the future that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, our stock price could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the New York Stock Exchange, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

We have substantial indebtedness, and the degree to which we are leveraged may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

At December 31, 2022, we have $0.6 billion of total debt outstanding, consisting of:

$114.6 million under an amended and extended credit agreement entered into in December 2022 (the “Credit Agreement”) with a syndicate of lenders;
$500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.375% senior unsecured notes issued December 21, 2016 (the “2016 Notes”); and
net of $4.0 million of unamortized debt issue costs.

There are no current drawings under our foreign credit facilities, and we can borrow an additional $709.8 million under the Credit Agreement.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, as well as any future debt that we may incur, will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future from operations, financings or asset sales. Our ability to generate cash is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We may not generate sufficient funds to service our debt and meet our business needs, such as funding working capital or the expansion of our operations. If we are not able to repay or refinance our debt as it becomes due, we may be forced to take certain actions, including reducing spending on marketing, advertising and new product innovation, reducing future financing for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes, selling assets or dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. In addition, our ability to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in our industry, including both the live and online auction industry, could be impaired.

The lenders who hold our debt could also accelerate amounts due in the event that we default, which could potentially trigger a default or acceleration of the maturity of our other debt. In addition, our leverage could put us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged. These competitors could have greater financial flexibility to pursue strategic acquisitions and secure additional financing for their operations. Our leverage could also impede our ability to withstand downturns in our industry or the economy in general. We may incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the Credit Agreement and the indentures governing the Notes will limit, but not prohibit, us from incurring additional indebtedness. If we incur any additional

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indebtedness that has the same priority as the Notes and the guarantees thereof, the holders of that indebtedness will be entitled to share ratably with the holders of the Notes and the guarantees thereof in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of the Company. Subject to restrictions in the Credit Agreement and the indenture governing the Notes, we also will have the ability to incur additional secured indebtedness that would be effectively senior to the Notes offered hereby, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such obligations. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify.

Our debt instruments have restrictive covenants that could limit our financial flexibility.

The terms of the Credit Agreement and the 2016 Notes indenture contain financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. Our ability to borrow under our Credit Agreement is subject to compliance with a consolidated leverage ratio covenant and a consolidated interest coverage ratio covenant.

The Credit Agreement includes other restrictions that limit our ability in certain circumstances to: incur indebtedness; grant liens; engage in mergers, consolidations and liquidations; make asset dispositions, restricted payments and investments; enter into transactions with affiliates; and amend, modify or prepay certain indebtedness. The indentures governing the 2016 Notes contain covenants that limit our ability in certain circumstances to: incur additional indebtedness (including guarantees thereof); incur or create liens on their assets securing indebtedness; make certain restricted payments; make certain investments; dispose of certain assets; allow certain restrictions on the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments to us; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; and consolidate, amalgamate or merge with or into other companies.

Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our funded debt. We do not have sufficient working capital to satisfy our debt obligations in the event of an acceleration of all or a significant portion of our outstanding indebtedness.

Our operating results are subject to quarterly variations.

Historically, our revenues and operating results have fluctuated from quarter to quarter. We expect to continue to experience these fluctuations as a result of the following factors, among others, (a) the size, timing, nature and frequency of our auctions; (b) the seasonal nature of the auction business in general, with peak activity typically occurring in the second and fourth calendar quarters, mainly as a result of the seasonal nature of the construction and natural resources industries; (c) the extent and performance of our underwritten (guarantee and outright purchase) contracts; (d) general economic conditions in the geographical regions in which we operate; and (e) the timing of acquisitions and development of auction facilities and related costs.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs when entering new geographies, and variability in the number and size of auctions at new sites can cause volatility in our operations. These and other factors may cause our future results to fall short of investor expectations or not to compare favorably to our past results. Further, as our results generally fluctuate from quarter to quarter, period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful indicators of future performance.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our growth prospects.

We regard our proprietary technologies and intellectual property as integral to our success. We protect our proprietary technology through a combination of trade secrets, third-party confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements, additional contractual restrictions on disclosure and use, and patent, copyright, and trademark laws.

We are the registered owners of many Internet domain names internationally. As we seek to protect our domain names in an increasing number of jurisdictions, we may not be successful in doing so in certain jurisdictions. Our competitors may adopt trade names or domain names similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to promote our marketplace and possibly leading to customer confusion. In addition, we could face trade name or trademark or service mark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered or unregistered trademarks or service marks, including trademarks or service marks that may incorporate variations of our brand names. The legal means we use to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property do not afford complete protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We cannot guarantee that: any of our present or future intellectual property rights will not lapse or be invalidated, circumvented, challenged or abandoned; our

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intellectual property rights will provide competitive advantages to us; our ability to assert our intellectual property rights against potential competitors or to settle current or future disputes will not be limited by our agreements with third parties; any of our pending or future patent applications will be issued or have the coverage originally sought; or our intellectual property rights will be enforced in jurisdictions where competition may be intense or where legal protection may be weak.

We also may allow certain of our registered intellectual property rights, or our pending applications or registrations for intellectual property rights, to lapse or to become abandoned if we determine that obtaining or maintaining the applicable registered intellectual property rights is not worthwhile. Further, although it is our practice to enter into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, these agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of the agreements.

Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy, reverse engineer, or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. We cannot be certain that we will be able to prevent unauthorized use of our technology or infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights. Effective patent, copyright, trademark, service mark, trade secret, and domain name protection is time-consuming and expensive to maintain. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources. In addition, our efforts may be met with defenses and counterclaims challenging the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights or may result in a court determining that our intellectual property rights are unenforceable. If we are unable to cost-effectively protect our intellectual property rights, then our business could be harmed. If competitors are able to use our technology or develop proprietary technology similar to ours or competing technologies, our ability to compete effectively and our growth prospects could be adversely affected.

Our use of open source software could subject us to risks, including with respect to the terms of open source licenses.

Some of the software powering our marketplace incorporates software covered by open source licenses. The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts and there is a risk that the licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to operate our marketplace. Under certain open source licenses, we could be required to publicly release the source code of our software or to make our software available under open source licenses. To avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software which could significantly interrupt our operations.

In addition, use of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software because open source licensors generally do not provide maintenance, warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Open source software may also present risks of unforeseen or unmanaged security vulnerabilities that could potentially unintentionally be introduced into our software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of this software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to compromise our technology platform. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risk Related to Our Industry

Competition could result in reductions in our future revenues and profitability.

The global used equipment market, including the auction segment of that market, is highly fragmented. We compete for potential purchasers and sellers of equipment with other auction companies and with non-auction competitors such as equipment manufacturers, distributors and dealers, equipment rental companies, and other online marketplaces. When sourcing equipment to sell at our auctions or other marketplaces, we compete with other onsite and online auction companies, OEM and independent dealers, equipment brokers, other third parties, and equipment owners that have traditionally disposed of equipment in private sales.

Some of our competitors have significantly greater financial and marketing resources and name recognition than we do. New competitors with greater financial and other resources and/or different business models/strategies may enter the equipment auction market in the future. Additionally, existing or future competitors may succeed in entering and establishing successful operations in

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new geographic markets prior to our entry into those markets. They may also compete against us through internet-based services and other combined service offerings.

If commission rates decline, or if our strategy to compete against our many competitors is not effective, our revenues, market share, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted. We may be susceptible to loss of business if competing selling models become more appealing to customers. If our selling model becomes undesirable or we are not successful in adding services complementary to our existing selling model and business, we may not be successful increasing market penetration over the long-term, which could prevent us from achieving our long-term earnings growth targets.

Decreases in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, could harm our business.

Our revenues could decrease if there is significant erosion in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We have no control over any of the factors that affect the supply of or demand for used equipment and the circumstances that cause market values for equipment to fluctuate including, among other things, economic uncertainty, the global geopolitical climate, disruptions to credit and financial markets, lower commodity prices, and our customers’ restricted access to capital. Recent economic conditions have caused fluctuations in the supply, mix and market values of used equipment available for sale, which has a direct impact on our revenues.

In addition, price competition and the availability of equipment directly affect the supply of, demand for, and market value of used equipment. Climate change initiatives, including significant changes to engine emission standards applicable to equipment, may also adversely affect the supply of, demand for our market values of equipment.

Risk Related to Our Organization and Governance

Our articles, by-laws, shareholder rights plan and Canadian law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.

Certain provisions of our articles of amalgamation and by-laws, as well as certain provisions of the Canada Business Corporations Act (the “CBCA”) and applicable Canadian securities law, could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay or prevent a change in control or materially adversely impact the price that certain investors might be willing to pay for our common shares. For instance, our articles of amalgamation authorize our board of directors to determine the designations, rights and restrictions to be attached to, and to issue an unlimited number of, junior preferred shares and senior preferred shares. In addition, our by-laws contain provisions establishing that shareholders must give advance notice to us in circumstances where nominations of persons for election to our board of directors are made by our shareholders other than pursuant to either a requisition of a meeting made in accordance with the provisions of the CBCA or a shareholder proposal made in accordance with the provisions of the CBCA. Among other things, these advance notice provisions set a deadline by which shareholders must notify us in writing of an intention to nominate directors for election to the board of directors prior to any shareholder meeting at which directors are to be elected and set forth the information required in this notice for it to be valid.

Our board of directors has adopted a shareholder rights plan (the “Rights Plan”), pursuant to which we issued one right in respect of each common share outstanding. Under the Rights Plan, following a transaction in which any person becomes an “acquiring person” as defined in the Rights Plan, each right will entitle the holder to receive a number of common shares provided in the Rights Plan. The purposes of the Rights Plan are (i) to provide our board of directors time to consider value-enhancing alternatives to a take-over bid and to allow competing bids to emerge; (ii) to ensure that shareholders are provided equal treatment under a take-over bid; and (iii) to give adequate time for shareholders to properly assess a take-over bid without undue pressure. The Rights Plan can potentially impose a significant penalty on any person commencing a takeover bid that would result in the offeror becoming the beneficial owner of 20% or more of our outstanding common shares.

Any of these provisions, as well as certain provisions of the CBCA and applicable Canadian securities law, may discourage a potential acquirer from proposing or completing a transaction that may have otherwise presented a premium to our shareholders.

U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers.

We are governed by the CBCA and our principal place of business is in Canada. Many of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of their assets, as well as a substantial portion of our assets, are located outside the

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United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us and such directors and officers or to enforce judgments obtained against us or such persons, in U.S. courts, in any action, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws or any other laws of the United States.

Additionally, rights predicated solely upon civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws or any other laws of the United States may not be enforceable in original actions, or actions to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts, brought in Canadian courts, including courts in the Province of British Columbia.

We are governed by the corporate laws of Canada which in some cases have a different effect on shareholders than the corporate laws of Delaware.

We are governed by the CBCA and other relevant laws, which may affect the rights of shareholders differently than those of a company governed by the laws of a U.S. jurisdiction, and may, together with our charter documents, have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of our company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise, or may affect the price an acquiring party would be willing to offer in such an instance.

ITEM 1B:    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2:       PROPERTIES

We own and lease various properties in Canada, the United States and 10 other countries globally. We use the properties as auction sites, storage warehouses, and as executive and administrative offices.

Our corporate headquarters are located in Burnaby, Canada, and are held through a lease that expires in May 2030. We also lease the following other properties which support our businesses:

A European head office in Breda, Netherlands;
IronPlanet’s head office in Pleasanton, United States;
Rouse’s head office in Los Angeles, United States;
SmartEquip’s head office in Connecticut, United States;
An administrative office in Fort Worth, United States; and
Two warehouses supporting GovPlanet operations in Las Vegas and Chambersburg, United States.

We also own an administrative office in Lincoln, Nebraska, United States.

International Network of Auction Sites

We generally attempt to establish our auction sites in industrial areas close to major cities. Our auction sites benefit consignors who prefer to drop off their equipment on premise, where we offer “care, custody and control”. Our auction sites also allow buyers to come in advance of the onsite auction and physically inspect the equipment they plan to bid on. Although we lease some auction sites, we have historically preferred to purchase land and construct purpose-built facilities once we have established a base of business and determined that a region can generate sufficient financial returns to justify the investment.

We currently have over 40 locations in our auction site network that are either owned or leased as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have 22 local satellite yards (4 were added in 2022 compared to 18 added in 2021) globally to reduce transportation barriers for our customers and increase their accessibility to our auctions and online marketplaces. We also have 28 GovPlanet yards and 2 GovPlanet warehouses in the United States, which are used for servicing our US military agreements.

In March 2022, we completed the sale and leaseback of our Bolton property, a parcel of land including all buildings, in Bolton, Ontario, Canada. We intend to lease the Bolton property for our auction operations until mid-2024 when we expect to have completed

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the acquisition and development of a replacement property located in Ontario, Canada. In September 2022, we also completed the purchase of an auction site in Maltby, United Kingdom.

The general location and ownership of our auction site network properties and our yards used in our A&M segment are set forth below:

Location

    

Number of Auction Sites

Owned Acreage

Leased Acreage

Main auction sites

United States

 

20

1,747

 

210

Canada

 

10

672

 

117

Europe

 

6

325

 

Australia

2

82

Other

 

3

341

 

44

Total

41

3,167

371

Local satellite yards

United States

 

11

113

 

107

Canada

 

3

 

26

Europe

 

3

 

14

Australia

 

5

 

17

Total

22

113

164

GovPlanet yards

United States

 

28

 

259

Total

28

259

We believe that our administrative offices and auction sites are adequate and suitable to conduct our operations. In 2022, many of our employees continued to work remotely. The longer-term strategy with respect to our administrative offices and auction sites will reflect on-going review of business and customer needs, as well as consider employee preferences.

ITEM 3:       LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We have no material legal proceedings pending, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, and we do not know of any material proceedings contemplated by governmental authorities.

ITEM 4:       MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5:       MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Outstanding Share Data

We are a public company and our common shares are listed under the symbol “RBA” on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and the Toronto Stock Exchange (“TSX”). Financial information about our equity and share-based payments is set forth in our consolidated financial statement footnotes 24 “Equity and dividends” and 25 “Share-based payments” in “Part II, Item 8: “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Market Information

Our common shares, without par value, are issued in registered form. The transfer agent for the shares is Computershare Trust Company of Canada, 100 University Avenue, 9th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5J 2Y1. Our common shares trade on the NYSE and on the TSX under the symbol “RBA”. On February 21, 2023, there were 625 holders of record of our common shares that do not include the shareholders for whom shares are held in a nominee or street name.

Dividend Policy

We currently pay a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.27 per common share. We currently intend to continue to declare and pay a regular quarterly cash dividend on our common shares; however, any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, after considering our operating results, financial condition, cash requirements, financing agreement restrictions and any other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Because Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated is a holding company with no material assets other than the shares of its subsidiaries, our ability to pay dividends on our common shares depends on the income and cash flow of our subsidiaries. No financing agreements to which our subsidiaries are party currently restrict those subsidiaries from paying dividends.

Pursuant to income tax legislation, Canadian resident individuals who receive “eligible dividends” in 2006 and subsequent years will be entitled to an enhanced gross-up and dividend tax credit on such dividends. All dividends that we pay are “eligible dividends” unless indicated otherwise.

Special Dividend

On January 23, 2023, we announced that our Board of Directors expects to approve the payment of a one-time special dividend to our shareholders in the amount of $1.08 per share, contingent upon the closing of the merger with IAA. The special dividend will be payable to holders of record of our common shares as of a record date prior to the effective time to be determined with the consent of the TSX and only if the merger is completed. Our shareholders will only be eligible to receive the special dividend if they own their common shares through the record date determined for the special dividend, which we will publicly announce following determination. IAA stockholders will not be entitled to receive the special dividend with respect to any of our common shares received as consideration in the merger. We will not pay the special dividend if the merger agreement is terminated or the merger is otherwise not completed for any reason.

Comparison of Cumulative Return

The following graph compares the cumulative return on a $100 investment in our common shares over the last five fiscal years beginning December 31, 2017 through December 31, 2022, to that of the cumulative return on a $100 investment in the Russell Global Index (“Russell 2000”), the S&P / TSX Composite Index (“S&P/TSX”) and the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (“DJIA”) for the same period. In calculating the cumulative return, reinvestment of dividends, if any, is assumed. The indices are included for comparative purpose only. This graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.

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Graphic

Company / index

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

RBA (NYSE)

$

100.0

$

111.1

$

148.8

$

244.9

$

218.8

$

210.3

Russell 2000

$

100.0

$

88.1

$

110.6

$

132.6

$

152.3

$

121.1

S&P/TSX

$

100.0

$

90.6

$

111.3

$

117.5

$

147.1

$

138.6

DJIA

$

100.0

$

96.1

$

120.5

$

132.2

$

159.9

$

148.9

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

The following table sets forth information about the Company’s equity compensation plans at December 31, 2022.

    

    

    

Number of securities remaining

 

Number of securities to be issued

Weighted average exercise

available for future issuance under

 

upon exercise of options,

price of outstanding options,

equity compensation plans (excluding

 

warrants and rights

warrants and rights

securities reflected in column (a))

 

Plan Category

(a)

(b)

I

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders

 

4,682,264

(1)

$

59.77

(2)

5,299,246

(3)

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

 

 

Total

 

4,682,264

$

59.77

5,299,246

(1)Reflects our Stock Option Plan, the IronPlanet Stock Plans, PSUs granted under the Executive PSU Plan and the Employee PSU Plan, and equity-classified RSUs. This amount reflects 100% of target numbers of PSUs granted and includes dividend equivalent rights credited in connection with such PSUs. Under the PSU Plans, the number of PSUs that vest is conditional upon specified market, service, and/or performance vesting conditions being met. For the PSUs with market conditions granted in 2021 and 2022 under the PSU Plans, the market vesting condition is based on the total stockholder return performance of the Company relative to the performance of the S&P 500 index members at the date of grant. PSUs with market conditions can result in participants earning between 0% and 300% of the target number granted. There were no market vesting conditions for the share units granted under the PSU Plans in 2019 and 2020. Share units granted under our PSU plans with no market vesting conditions are based on the achievement of specific performance measures and can result in participants earning between 0% and 200% of the target number of PSUs granted. Further, we have the option to choose whether to settle these PSUs without market vesting conditions in

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cash or in shares. For further discussion on the PSUs granted under our Plans, refer to Note 25 of the consolidated financial statements, Share-based Payments.
(2)Weighted average exercise price does not include the effect of our outstanding share units. The remaining term of our stock options is 6.5 years.
(3)Consists of: (a) 3,919,069 common shares available for issuance under the Stock Option Plan; (b) no common shares are available for issuance under the IronPlanet Stock Plans; (c) 778,551 common shares that we may elect to issue upon settlement of our PSUs granted under the PSU Plans; and (d) 601,626 common shares that we may elect to issue upon settlement of our RSUs granted under the RSU Plans.

Exchange Controls

Canada has no system of exchange controls. There are no Canadian restrictions on the repatriation of capital or earnings of a Canadian public company to non-resident investors. There are no laws in Canada or exchange restrictions affecting the remittance of dividends, profits, interest, royalties and other payments to U.S. Resident Holders (as defined below) of our common shares, except as discussed in “Certain Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Residents” below.

There are no limitations under the laws of Canada or in our organizational documents on the right of foreigners to hold or vote our common shares, except that the Investment Canada Act may require review and approval by the Minister of Industry (Canada) of certain acquisitions of control of Ritchie Bros. by a “non-Canadian”. “Non-Canadian” generally means an individual who is not a Canadian citizen, or a corporation, partnership, trust or joint venture that is ultimately controlled by non-Canadians.

Certain Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Residents

The following summarizes certain Canadian federal income tax consequences generally applicable under the Income Tax Act (Canada) and the regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Canadian Tax Act”) and the Canada-U.S. Income Tax Convention (1980) (the “Convention”) to the holding and disposition of common shares by a U.S. Resident Holder (as defined below).

This summary is restricted to beneficial owners of common shares each of whom, at all material times for the purposes of the Canadian Tax Act and the Convention, (i) is resident solely in the U.S., (ii) is entitled to the full benefits of the Convention, (iii) holds all common shares as capital property, (iii) holds no common shares that are “taxable Canadian property” (within the meaning of the Canadian Tax Act), (iv) deals at arm’s length with and is not affiliated with Ritchie Bros., (v) does not and is not deemed to use or hold any common shares in a business carried on in Canada, and (vi) is not an "authorized foreign bank" (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act) or an insurer that carries on business in Canada and elsewhere (each such holder, a “U.S. Resident Holder”).

Certain U.S.-resident entities that are fiscally transparent for U.S. federal income tax purposes (including limited liability companies) may not be regarded by the Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) as entitled to the benefits of the Convention. Members of or holders of an interest in such an entity that holds common shares should consult their own tax advisers regarding the extent, if any, to which the CRA will extend the benefits of the Convention in respect of common shares held by such entity.

Generally, a U.S. Resident Holder’s common shares will be considered to be capital property of a U.S. Resident Holder provided that the U.S. Resident Holder does not acquire, hold or dispose of the common shares in one or more transactions considered to be an adventure or concern in the nature of trade and does not hold the common shares in the course of carrying on a business.

This summary is based on the provisions of the Canadian Tax Act and the Convention in effect on the date hereof, all specific proposals to amend the Canadian Tax Act and Convention publicly announced by or on behalf of the Minister of Finance (Canada) on or before the date hereof (the “Tax Proposals”), and the current published administrative policies of the CRA. It is assumed that the Tax Proposals will be enacted as currently proposed, and that there will be no other material change to any applicable law or administrative practice, whether by judicial, legislative, governmental or administrative decision or action, although no assurance can be given in these respects. Except as otherwise expressly provided, this summary does not take into account any provincial, territorial or foreign tax considerations, which may differ materially from those set out herein.

This summary is of a general nature only and it is not intended to be, nor should it be construed to be, legal or tax advice to any holder of common shares, and no representation with respect to Canadian federal income tax consequences to any holder of common shares is made herein. Accordingly, holders of common shares should consult their own tax advisers with respect to their individual circumstances.

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Disposition of Common Shares

A U.S. Resident Holder will not be subject to tax under the Canadian Tax Act in respect of any capital gain realized by such U.S. Resident Holder on a disposition of common shares unless the common shares constitute “taxable Canadian property” (within the meaning of the Canadian Tax Act) of the U.S. Resident Holder at the time of disposition and the U.S. Resident Holder is not entitled under the Convention to an exemption from Canadian tax on the gain.

Generally, a U.S. Resident Holder’s common share will not constitute “taxable Canadian property” of the U.S. Resident Holder at the time of disposition provided that such share is listed on a “designated stock exchange” for purposes of the Canadian Tax Act (which currently includes the TSX and NYSE) unless at any time during the 60-month period immediately preceding the disposition both of the following conditions are true:

(i)the U.S. Resident Holder, any one or more persons with whom the U.S. Resident Holder does not deal at arm’s length, or any partnership in which the holder or persons with whom the holder did not deal at arm’s length holds a membership interest directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships, alone or in any combination, owned 25% or more of the issued shares of any class or series of our share capital; and
(ii)more than 50% of the fair market value of such common share was derived directly or indirectly from, or from any combination of, real or immovable property situated in Canada, “Canadian resource properties” (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act), “timber resource properties” (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act), or options in respect of, interests in or civil law rights in, such properties, whether or not such properties exist.

In certain circumstances set out in the Canadian Tax Act, a common share may be deemed to be “taxable Canadian property” for purposes of the Canadian Tax Act.

Even if the common shares constitute “taxable Canadian property” to a U.S. Resident Holder, under the Convention, such a U.S. Resident Holder will not be subject to tax under the Canadian Tax Act on any capital gain realized by such holder on a disposition of such common shares, provided the value of such common shares is not derived principally from real property situated in Canada (within the meaning of the Convention).

U.S. Resident Holders whose shares may be taxable Canadian property should consult their own tax advisors

Dividends on Common Shares

Dividends paid or credited, or deemed to be paid or credited, on common shares to a U.S. Resident Holder will generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax. Under the Canadian Tax Act, the rate of withholding tax is 25% of the gross amount of such dividends, which rate may be subject to reduction under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty or convention. Under the Convention, a U.S. Resident Holder who is a beneficial owner of a dividend will generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax at the rate of 15% of the gross amount of such dividend, unless the beneficial owner is a company which owns (or is deemed under the Convention to own) at least 10% of the voting shares of Ritchie Bros. at that time, in which case the rate of Canadian withholding tax is generally reduced to 5%.

ITEM 6: [RESERVED]

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ITEM 7:         MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

About Us

Established in 1958, Ritchie Bros. (NYSE and TSX: RBA) is a world leader in asset management technologies and disposition of commercial assets. We offer customers end-to-end solutions for buying and selling used heavy equipment, trucks and other assets. Operating in a number of sectors, including construction, commercial transportation, agriculture, energy, oil and gas, mining, and forestry, our selling channels include: Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers, the world’s largest industrial auctioneer offers live auction events with online bidding and onsite bidding (at certain auction events); IronPlanet, an online marketplace with featured weekly auctions and providing the exclusive IronClad Assurance® equipment condition certification; Marketplace-E, a controlled marketplace offering multiple price and timing options; Mascus & RitchieList, online equipment listing services; Rouse, a leader in market intelligence on sales and rental equipment data; SmartEquip, an innovative technology platform offering equipment lifecycle support and part procurement; and Ritchie Bros. Private Treaty, offering privately negotiated sales. Our suite of multichannel sales solutions also includes RB Asset Solutions, a complete end-to-end asset management and disposition system. We also offer sector-specific solutions including GovPlanet, and TruckPlanet, plus equipment financing and leasing through Ritchie Bros. Financial Services.

Through our unreserved onsite and online bidding auctions, online marketplaces, and private brokerage services, we sell a broad range of used and unused commercial assets, including earthmoving equipment, truck tractors, truck trailers, government surplus, oil and gas equipment and other industrial assets. Construction and heavy machinery comprise the majority of the equipment sold. Customers selling equipment through our sales channels include end-users (such as construction companies), equipment dealers, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), and other equipment owners (such as rental companies). Our customers participate in a variety of sectors, including heavy construction, commercial transportation, agriculture, energy, and mining.

Overview

This section of the Form 10-K generally discusses 2022 and 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021. Discussions of 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in “Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.

Our actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statements due to various factors, including those set forth under “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”). Except for GTV, which is a measure of operational performance and not a measure of financial performance, liquidity, or revenue, the amounts discussed below are based on our consolidated financial statements. Unless indicated otherwise, all tabular dollar amounts, including related footnotes, presented below are expressed in thousands of United States (“U.S.”) dollars.

In the accompanying analysis of financial information, we sometimes use information derived from consolidated financial data but not presented in our financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP. Certain of these data are considered “non-GAAP financial measures” under the SEC rules. The definitions and reasons we use these non-GAAP financial measures and the reconciliations to their most directly comparable US GAAP financial measures are included either with the first use thereof or in the “Non-GAAP Measures” section within “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”.

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Performance Overview

Net income attributable to stockholders for 2022 increased 110% to $319.7 million compared to $151.9 million in 2021. Diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) attributable to stockholders increased 110% to $2.86 from $1.36 per share. Adjusted net income attributable to stockholders increased 25% to $269.9 million in 2022 as compared to $216.1 million in 2021. Diluted adjusted EPS attributable to stockholders increased 24% to $2.41 per share in 2022 as compared to $1.94 per share in 2021.

For the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021:

Consolidated Results:

Total revenue increased 22% to $1.7 billion
oService revenue increased 14% to $1.1 billion
oInventory sales revenue increased 37% to $683.2 million
Operating income increased 89% to $454.5 million
Adjusted operating income increased 24% to $400.4 million
Net income increased 111% to $319.8 million
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) increased 21% to $465.2 million
Cash provided by operating activities was $463.1 million
Cash on hand was $625.9 million, of which $494.3 million was unrestricted

Auctions & Marketplaces Segment Results:

GTV increased 9% to $6.0 billion and increased 12% when excluding the impact of foreign exchange
A&M total revenue increased 22% to $1.5 billion
oService revenue increased 12% to $852.0 million
oInventory sales revenue increased 37% to $683.2 million

Other Services Segment Results:

Other Services total revenue increased 28% to $198.6 million
oRBFS revenue increased 47% to $68.9 million
oRouse revenue increased 17% to $31.3 million
oSmartEquip revenue of $20.5 million was recognized in 2022, which was its first full year since acquisition on November 2, 2021

Operational Highlights

In 2022, the organization focused on our growth strategy and vision of becoming the trusted global marketplace for insights, services, and transaction solutions for commercial assets and vehicles. We also continue to focus on the needs of our customers, stakeholders, partners and our people to drive short-term results while building on opportunities to achieve long term success for the Company. Shown below are some notable highlights during the year:

We achieved approximately $6.0 billion in GTV, which is the Company’s highest ever, with growth in our strategic accounts and across all regions. Our U.S. region saw record inventory GTV, primarily from the finance sector.
We also achieved record setting GTV from Marketplace-E, our online reserved format, which increased 39% year-over-year, driven by continued strong adoption of the platform, particularly in North America.
For the first time in its 11-year history, RBFS surpassed $1.0 billion in annual funded volume, helping tens of thousands of customers around the world purchase used equipment, vehicles and other industrial assets.
Our GovPlanet business realized process improvements and efficiencies in inventory management, resulting in higher revenue, in part as a result of our strong relationship with the United States Government Defense Logistics Agency.
We adjusted and harmonized our buyer fee structure in early 2022 across North America to continue to drive growth with new initiatives and remain competitive while supporting all of our services across our platforms.

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In February 2022, we held our massive premier six-day global auction event in Orlando, Florida, U.S which attracted and welcomed back together thousands of buyers from around the world and leveraged the best of the onsite and online worlds. We introduced a new online inspection tool that provided users with 360-degree view of items selling, enhanced sale day experience with live videos and bidder maps, and offered bidders a new mobile experience for online bidding. We offered our online global audiences similar tools and experiences in our major auction events in Edmonton and Fort Worth.
We successfully integrated Rouse and SmartEquip businesses acquired in late 2020 and 2021, respectively, with strong synergies resulting in positive year-over-year growth.
We expanded our sales coverage model strategies to accelerate growth.
We continued to expand our RitchieList customer base by more than 300% and surpassed 75,000 active listings for equipment, vehicles and other assets. RitchieList is our first North American listing site which provides our customers with one-stop shop for insights, services and a variety of transaction solutions.

We further accelerated our journey against many of our strategic pillars by entering into a Merger Agreement to acquire IAA in November 2022, subsequently amended in January 2023. The proposed acquisition of IAA is expected to close in the first half of 2023. IAA is a leading global digital marketplace connecting vehicle buyers and sellers. The proposed acquisition will diversify our customer base by providing the Company with a significant presence in the vehicle remarketing vertical that has strong industry fundamentals with proven secular growth.

In addition to the proposed acquisition of IAA, we took several steps to advance our new growth strategy in 2022 highlighted below:

Customer Experience

We continued to improve our digital experience by adding two new valuable tools with the launch of a new podcast and blog to help keep our customers informed about the equipment market, pricing and volume trends, auction results, inspection tips and providing data-based insights.
We continued to scale our local satellite yards program with four new satellite yards established in 2022. The program provides our sellers with more locations to store and display equipment for potential buyers. It further ensures that we continue to enable the circular economy on a local basis by enabling growth in a low-cost and environmentally friendly way.
We expanded our complete suite of transaction solutions, services and insights to our customers and consignors in the oil & gas industry with a new dedicated Ritchie Bros. Energy team upon the discontinuation of our Kruse Energy brand.

Best Employee Experience

We rolled out online safety trainings for all onsite managers to make sure employees return home every day the way they came to work.
We enhanced our employee experience in areas of diversity, equity and inclusion (DE&I) and community given, including launch of the Diversity, Equity & Inclusion training to our senior leaders and people leaders, with sessions rolling out to all employees in 2023.
We conducted six new hire bootcamp workshops with the launch of a new sales coverage model for North America and for a long tail sales team.
We continue to provide our employees with flexible work arrangements.
We recognized Juneteenth as a company holiday for employees in the United States and recognized National Day of Truth and Reconciliation for employees in Canada.
We continued to have positive community impact from Pride (2SLGBTQ+) and Serve (Military Veterans) Employee Resource Groups
We enhanced our community giving efforts by launching #RitchieGives Community Impact platform which includes providing our employees with extensive volunteering opportunities.

Modern Architecture

At the beginning of 2022, we partnered with Thoughtworks, a global technology consultancy, to accelerate our modernization and digitization journey to deliver our vision of a modern, digital marketplace that is seamless for our customers, employees and partners. During the year, our engineering teams, together with Thoughtworks, designed and built certain capabilities in the development of our digital marketplace ecosystem, such as the check-out functionality and delivery of inspection reports.

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Inventory Management System (“IMS”)

IMS (business version) was launched in 2021, which offers our customers end-to-end asset management and disposition services, data analytics, dashboards, branded e-commerce sites and multiple external sales channels to help our customers achieve optimal returns. During 2022, organizations activated on IMS grew 465% compared to 2021.
Improved backend systems and processes to enable faster growth.
Increased use of IMS for transactional workflow.

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Results of Operations

Year ended December 31, 

 

% Change

(in U.S. dollars $000's, except EPS and percentages)

    

2022

    

2021

    

2020

    

2022 over 2021

    

2021 over 2020

 

Service revenue:

Commissions

$

485,916

$

469,718

$

452,882

3

%

4

%

Fees

564,667

448,041

418,714

26

%

7

%

Total service revenue

1,050,583

917,759

871,596

14

%

5

%

Inventory sales revenue

683,225

499,212

505,664

37

%

(1)

%

Total revenue

1,733,808

1,416,971

1,377,260

22

%

3

%

Costs of services

 

168,127

 

155,258

 

164,528

 

8

%

 

(6)

%

Cost of inventory sold

 

608,574

 

447,921

 

458,293

 

36

%

 

(2)

%

Selling, general and administrative

 

539,933

 

456,203

 

410,291

 

18

%

 

11

%

Total operating expenses

1,450,096

1,178,260

1,115,659

23

%

6

%

Gain on disposition of property, plant and equipment

170,833

1,436

1,559

11,796

%

(8)

%

Operating income

 

454,545

 

240,147

 

263,160

 

89

%

 

(9)

%

Operating income as a % of total revenue

26.2

%

16.9

%

19.1

%

930

bps

(220)

bps

Adjusted operating income

400,358

323,471

314,514

24

%

 

3

%

Adjusted operating income as a % of total revenue

23.1

%

22.8

%

22.8

%

30

bps

bps

Net income attributable to stockholders

 

319,657

 

151,868

 

170,095

 

110

%

 

(11)

%

Adjusted net income attributable to stockholders

 

269,919

 

216,106

 

208,660

 

25

%

 

4

%

Adjusted EBITDA

465,215

385,324

374,295

21

%

3

%

Diluted earnings per share attributable to stockholders

$

2.86

$

1.36

$

1.54

110

%

 

(12)

%

Diluted adjusted earnings per share attributable to stockholders

$

2.41

$

1.94

$

1.89

24

%

 

3

%

Effective tax rate

 

21.2

%

 

26.0

%

 

27.8

%

 

(480)

bps

 

(180)

bps

Total GTV

6,025,889

5,533,931

5,411,218

9

%

2

%

Service GTV

5,342,664

5,034,719

4,905,554

6

%

3

%

Service revenue as a % of total GTV

17.4

%

16.6

%

16.1

%

80

bps

50

bps

Inventory GTV

683,225

499,212

505,664

37

%

(1)

%

Inventory return

$

74,651

$

51,291

$

47,371

46

%

8

%

Inventory rate

10.9

%

10.3

%

9.4

%

60

bps

90

bps

Service GTV as a % of total GTV - Mix

88.7

%

91.0

%

90.7

%

(230)

bps

30

bps

Inventory sales revenue as a % of total GTV - Mix

11.3

%

9.0

%

9.3

%

230

bps

(30)

bps

Certain amounts in the prior period have been reclassified from selling, general and administrative expenses to costs of services, refer to note 2(a) of our consolidated financial statements.

Total GTV

Total GTV increased 9% to $6.0 billion as compared to 2021, and increased 12% in 2022 as compared to 2021 when excluding the impact of foreign exchange.

In 2022, total GTV increased 9% driven by continued strong demand, strong asset pricing and higher lot counts, partially offset by an unfavourable impact of foreign exchange and an unfavorable asset mix. We saw growth across all regions but most notably in Canada and the United States. In Canada, GTV growth was driven by strong performances across several auction events, including agricultural events, strong execution by our Canadian strategic accounts teams, higher volume from RBFS from providing escrow services for private brokered transactions, and a higher number of inventory packages sold primarily in the commercial transportation sector. In the United States, GTV volume increased primarily from positive performances across numerous auctions and on our online marketplaces mainly due to higher volume of inventory contracts including strong results from our strategic accounts in the rental and finance sectors. We also saw growth from several of our strategic initiatives, including from our local yards and continued investments made in our sales coverage model. These increases were partially offset by the non-repeat of a large dispersal of pipeline construction equipment in a single-owner auction event in 2021. In International, Australia saw significant growth from improved market conditions and the lifting of border restrictions, as well as from a higher mix of inventory packages and strong performances at several auction events. We also saw improved year-over-year performances in Europe mainly offset by an unfavorable foreign exchange impact.

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Total Revenue

Total revenue increased 22% to $1.7 billion as compared to 2021, with total service revenue increasing by 14% and inventory sales revenue increasing by 37%.

Foreign currency fluctuation also had an unfavourable impact on our revenue primarily due to the depreciation of the Euro, the Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar.

Service Revenue

Service revenue is comprised of commissions that are earned on Service GTV, and fees that are earned on total GTV, as well as from our other services such as RBFS, Ancillary Services, Rouse, SmartEquip, Mascus, and RB Logistics. In 2022, service GTV increased 6% to $5.3 billion driven by positive results across all regions due to strong pricing despite the unfavourable supply environment.

In 2022, total service revenue increased 14% with fees revenue increasing 26% and commissions revenue increasing 3%. Fees revenue increased 26% with buyer fees growing faster than GTV of 9%, reflecting the increase in certain buyer fee rates implemented in early 2022. Fees revenue also increased due to higher RBFS revenues on higher funded volumes, the inclusion of fees from SmartEquip since its acquisition on November 2, 2021 and higher revenue from our Rouse business. Commissions revenue increased 3%, slightly less than the 6% increase in service GTV, primarily driven by lower straight commission rate performances in Canada from a higher proportion of GTV contributed by RBFS from facilitating financing arrangements, as well as the non-repeat of several high performing guarantee contracts. These decreases were partially offset by improved straight commission and guarantee rate performances in the United States.

Inventory Sales Revenue

Inventory sales revenue as a percent of total GTV increased to 11% from 9% in 2021.

In 2022, inventory sales revenue increased 37% predominantly in the United States partly due to an increased number of inventory packages sourced, including from our strategic accounts team and primarily in the finance and rental sectors. We also saw increased volumes selling through our auction events, including higher volumes from our GovPlanet non-rolling and rolling stock contracts. In Canada, we saw improved year-over-year performances from inventory sold mainly in the commercial transportation and construction sectors. In International, inventory sales revenue grew in Australia from the overall improvement in market conditions and the lifting of border restrictions, as well as from several new auction events. We also saw slightly lower year-over-year performances in Europe primarily due an unfavourable foreign exchange impact, as well as the non-repeat of several inventory contracts.

Underwritten Contracts

We offer our customers the opportunity to use underwritten commission contracts to serve their disposition strategy needs, entering into such contracts where the risk and reward profile of the terms are agreeable. Our underwritten contracts, as a percentage of total GTV, which include inventory and guarantee contracts, increased to 19% in 2022, compared to 18% 2021 primarily due to increased GTV signed with inventory contracts.

Operating Income

Operating income increased 89% due to the inclusion of a gain of $169.1 million from the sale of the Bolton property in the first quarter of 2022. Operating income increased 21%, when excluding the impact of the gain, primarily due to flow through from higher revenue, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses, higher depreciation and amortization expense from the investments made in developing our new digital marketplace platform and ecosystem and from the intangible assets acquired in SmartEquip, and higher acquisition related costs primarily in relation to the proposed acquisition of IAA. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased due to higher short-term incentive expenses driven by strong performance. Building, facilities and technology costs also increased, mainly due to the amortization of the right-of-use asset of the Bolton property from the sale and lease back arrangement completed in the first quarter of 2022, higher costs to support our new local satellite yards, as well as higher costs as we shift to cloud-based solutions to improve customer experiences. Share-based payments also increased as a result of higher expense relating to share-based awards issued to senior executives and higher expense from the premium-priced options and PSUs with market conditions granted in late 2021. In addition, we saw higher travel, advertising and promotion costs from increased activity from the return to global travel to support and promote our various growth initiatives with the easing of COVID-19 restrictions. We also saw higher wages, salaries and benefits expenses from higher headcount to accelerate our growth initiatives and our transformational journey to become a trusted global marketplace. We also saw higher professional fees driven by our investment in new modern architecture to support our future marketplace and services strategy. In addition, high inflationary pressures and rising costs have

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further contributed to higher selling, general and administrative expenses. These increases were partially offset by a favourable impact of foreign exchange.

Income Tax Expense and Effective Tax Rate

We recorded an income tax expense of $86.2 million in 2022 compared to $53.4 million in 2021. Our effective tax rate was 21.2% compared to 26.0% in 2021. The decrease in the effective tax rate over the comparative period was primarily due to the non-taxable gain portion of the sale of the Bolton property and a lower estimate of non-deductible expenses. Partially offsetting this decrease was a higher estimate of income taxes in jurisdictions with higher tax rates and a lower tax deduction for PSU and RSU share unit expenses that exceeded the related compensation expense.

Net Income

Net income attributable to stockholders increased 110% to $319.7 million compared to $151.9 million in 2021. The increase was primarily due to the inclusion of a gain of $169.1 million on property, plant and equipment from the sale of the Bolton property. The increase was also due to higher operating income and a lower effective tax rate as discussed above, partially offset by higher interest expense from our 2021 Notes, which included a loss on redemption.

Diluted EPS

Diluted EPS attributable to stockholders increased 110% to $2.86 per share compared to $1.36 in 2021. This increase was primarily due to the increase in net income attributable to stockholders as discussed above, combined with an increase in the weighted average number of dilutive shares outstanding over 2021.

U.S. Dollar Exchange Rate Comparison

We conduct global operations in many different currencies, with our presentation currency being the U.S dollar. The following table presents the variance in select foreign exchange rates over the comparative reporting periods:

  

  

% Change

    

2022 over

2021 over

 

Value of one local currency to U.S. dollar

    

2022

    

2021

    

2020

 

2021

2020

Period-end exchange rate - December 31, 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Canadian dollar

0.7378

0.7846

0.7843

 

(6)

%

0

%

Euro

 

1.0661

 

1.1322

 

1.2296

 

(6)

%

(8)

%

Australian dollar

0.6765

0.7250

0.7689

(7)

%

(6)

%

Average exchange rate - Year ended December 31, 

 

 

 

 

 

Canadian dollar

0.7690

0.7977

0.7462

 

(4)

%

7

%

Euro

1.0543

 

1.1834

 

1.1413

 

(11)

%

4

%

Australian dollar

0.6949

0.7514

0.6901

(8)

%

9

%

In 2022, approximately 42% of our revenues and 34% of our operating expenses were denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, compared to 45% and 47%, respectively, in 2021.

We recognized $1.0 million in foreign exchange gains in 2022 and $0.8 million of losses in 2021. Foreign exchange had an unfavourable impact on total revenue and a favourable impact on expenses. These impacts were mainly due to the fluctuations in the Euro, Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar exchanges rates relative to the U.S. dollar during the year.

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Key Operating Metrics

We regularly review a number of metrics, including the following key operating metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, and make operating decisions. We believe these key operating metrics are useful to investors because management uses these metrics to assess the growth of our business and the effectiveness of our operational strategies.

We define our key operating metrics as follows:

Gross transaction value: Represents total proceeds from all items sold at the Company’s auctions and online marketplaces. GTV is not a measure of financial performance, liquidity, or revenue, and is not presented in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Inventory return: Inventory sales revenue less cost of inventory sold.

Inventory rate: Inventory return divided by inventory sales revenue.

Inventory management system activations: Number of organizations activated on IMS. An organization is considered activated on IMS when a customer has signed an annual multi-channel contract and has an IMS instance setup to allow for equipment to be directed to one of our transaction solutions digitally.

Bids per lots sold: Each bid is completed electronically through our real-time online bidding system. A lot is defined as a single asset to be sold, or a group of assets bundled for sale as one unit. This metric calculates the total number of bids received for a lot divided by the total number of lots sold. GovPlanet business metrics are excluded from this metric as management reviews industrial equipment auction metrics excluding GovPlanet.

Total lots sold: A single asset to be sold, or a group of assets bundled for sale as one unit. Low value assets are sometimes bundled into a single lot, collectively referred to as “small value lots”. GovPlanet business metrics are excluded from this metric as management reviews industrial equipment auction metrics excluding GovPlanet.

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Non-GAAP Measures

As part of management’s non-GAAP measures, we may eliminate the financial impact of certain items that we do not consider to be part of our normal operating results.

Adjusted net income attributable to stockholders increased 25%, to $269.9 million compared to $216.1 million in 2021.

Diluted adjusted EPS attributable to stockholders increased 24% to $2.41 per share compared to $1.94 per share in 2021.

Adjusted EBITDA increased 21% to $465.2 million compared to $385.3 million in 2021.

Debt at December 31, 2022 represented 1.9 times net income for 2022, compared to debt at December 31, 2021, which represented 11.5 times net income for 2021. The decrease in this debt/net income multiplier was primarily due to lower debt balances following the redemption of our 2021 Notes and higher net income for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021. The adjusted net debt/ adjusted EBITDA was 0.3 times at December 31, 2022 compared to 1.3 times at December 31, 2021. The decrease in adjusted net debt/adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to lower adjusted net debt balance at December 31, 2022, as well as a 21% increase in adjusted EBITDA compared to the prior year.

Segment Performance

We provide our customers with a wide array of services. The following table presents a breakdown of our consolidated results between the A&M segment and Other services segment. A complete listing of channels and brand solutions under the A&M segment, as well as our “Other services segment”, is available under Item 1 of this Annual Report.

Year ended December 31, 2022

Year ended December 31, 2021

Year ended December 31, 2020

(in U.S. dollars $000's)

    

A&M

    

Other

    

Consolidated

    

A&M

    

Other

    

Consolidated

    

A&M

    

Other

    

Consolidated

Service revenue:

Commissions

$

485,916

$

$

485,916

$

469,718

$

$

469,718

$

452,882

$

$

452,882

Fees

366,079

198,588

564,667

293,408

154,633

448,041

291,775

126,939

418,714

Total service revenue

851,995

198,588

1,050,583

763,126

154,633

917,759

744,657

 

126,939

 

871,596

Inventory sales revenue

683,225

683,225

499,212

499,212

505,664

505,664

Total revenue

$

1,535,220

$

198,588

$

1,733,808

$

1,262,338

$

154,633

$

1,416,971

$

1,250,321

$

126,939

$

1,377,260

Ancillary and logistical service expenses

52,628

52,628

52,301

52,301

59,982

59,982

Other costs of services

104,902

10,597

115,499

97,423

5,534

102,957

103,232

1,314

104,546

Cost of inventory sold

 

608,574

 

 

608,574

 

447,921

 

 

447,921

 

458,293

 

 

458,293

Selling, general and administrative

 

466,251

 

73,682

 

539,933

 

406,360

 

49,843

 

456,203

 

382,254

 

28,037

 

410,291

Segment profit

$

355,493

$

61,681

$

417,174

$

310,634

$

46,955

$

357,589

$

306,542

$

37,606

$

344,148

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Auctions and Marketplaces Segment

Results of A&M segment operations are presented below for the comparative reporting periods.

Year ended December 31, 

% Change

    

    

2022 over

    

2021 over

(in U.S. dollars $000's, except percentages)

2022

    

2021

    

2020

2021

2020

Service revenue:

Commissions

$

485,916

$

469,718

$

452,882

3

%  

4

%  

Fees

366,079

293,408

291,775

25

%  

1

%  

Total service revenue

 

851,995

763,126

744,657

12

%  

2

%

Inventory sales revenue

 

683,225

499,212

505,664

37

%  

(1)

%

Total revenue

$

1,535,220

$

1,262,338

$

1,250,321

22

%  

1

%

A&M service revenue as a % of total A&M revenue

55.5

%  

60.5

%  

59.6

%  

(500)

bps

90

bps

Inventory sales revenue as a % of total A&M revenue

44.5

%  

39.5

%  

40.4

%  

500

bps

(90)

bps

Costs of services

104,902

97,423

103,232

8

%  

(6)

%

Cost of inventory sold

608,574

447,921

458,293

36

%  

(2)

%

Selling, general and administrative

466,251

406,360

382,254

15

%  

6

%

A&M segment expenses

1,179,727

951,704

943,779

24

%  

1

%

Cost of inventory sold as a % of A&M expenses

51.6

%  

47.1

%  

48.6

%  

450

bps

(150)

bps

A&M segment profit

$

355,493

$

310,634

$

306,542

14

%  

1

%

Total GTV

6,025,889

5,533,931

5,411,218

9

%  

2

%

A&M service revenue as a % of total GTV- Rate

 

14.1

%  

13.8

%  

13.8

%  

30

bps

bps

Gross Transaction Value

To facilitate the auction process, we enable equipment drop off at our physical yards, with buyers able to conduct inspections pre-auction and collect equipment post auction. In addition, we utilized Timed Auctioned Lots (“TAL”) solutions for nearly all our agricultural events in Canada, International auctions and at several of our United States auction sites. In 2022, we began to return to live in-person onsite bidding at some of our auction events, offering both onsite and online bidding.

We believe it is meaningful to consider revenue in relation to GTV. Total GTV and Service GTV by geographical regions, as well as GTV by sector, are presented below for the comparative reporting period.

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GTV by Geography

Year ended December 31, 

 

% Change

 

(in U.S. dollars $000's, except percentages)

    

2022

    

2021

    

2020

    

2022 over 2021

    

2021 over 2020

 

Total GTV by Geography

United States

$

3,432,366

$

3,230,708

$

3,235,548

6

%  

(0)

%

Canada

1,707,072

 

1,441,929

1,392,249

18

%  

4

%

International

886,451

 

861,294

783,421

3

%  

10

%

Total GTV

$

6,025,889

$

5,533,931

$

5,411,218

9

%  

2

%

Service GTV by Geography

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

United States

$

3,081,001

$

3,029,661

$

3,017,404

2

%  

0

%

Canada

1,636,642

1,410,252

1,307,992

16

%  

8

%

International

625,021

594,806

580,158

5

%  

3

%

Total Service GTV1

$

5,342,664

$

5,034,719

$

4,905,554

6

%  

3

%

1 Service GTV is calculated as total GTV less inventory sales revenue

GTV by Sector

The following pie charts illustrate the breakdown of total GTV by sector for the year ended December 31, 2022, December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020.

The construction sector includes heavy equipment such as trucks, excavators, cranes and dozers. The commercial transportation sector includes vehicles, buses, trailers and trucks that are used for transport. The other sector primarily includes equipment sold in the agricultural, forestry and energy industries.

In 2022, total GTV mix compared to 2021 increased by 2 percentage points in the commercial transportation sector, offset by a 3 percentage point decrease in the construction sector and 1 percentage point increase in the others sector.

Graphic

Total Auction Metrics

For the year ended December 31, 

 

% Change

 

2022

    

2021

    

2020

    

2022 over 2021

    

2021 over 2020

 

Bids per lot sold *

28

 

28

    

24

 

0

%  

17

%

Total lots sold *

520,959

 

493,371

    

543,342

 

6

%  

(9)

%

* Management reviews industrial equipment auction metrics excluding GovPlanet; as a result, GovPlanet business metrics are excluded from these metrics

The number of bids per lot sold remained flat at 28 in 2022 when compared to 2021.

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The total lots sold increased 6% to 520,959 in 2022 primarily driven by an increase in lot counts mainly in the United States and Canada.

A&M Revenue

Total A&M revenue increased 22% to $1.5 billion as compared to 2021.

A&M revenue by geographical region are presented below:

Year ended December 31, 

 

% Change

 

(in U.S. dollars $000's, except percentages)

2022

    

2021

    

2020

    

2022 over 2021

2021 over 2020

 

A&M Revenue by Geography

United States

 

  

Service revenue

$

526,590

$

476,759

$

480,264

 

10

%  

(1)

%

Inventory sales revenue

351,365

 

201,047

218,144

 

75

%  

(8)

%

A&M revenue - United States

877,955

 

677,806

698,408

 

30

%  

(3)

%

Canada

  

 

  

  

 

  

 

  

Service revenue

226,798

 

193,850

179,232