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T-Mobile US, Inc. - Annual Report: 2022 (Form 10-K)

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
☒          ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
or
         TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from    to
Commission File Number: 1-33409
tmus-20221231_g1.jpg
T-MOBILE US, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware20-0836269
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

12920 SE 38th Street
Bellevue, Washington
(Address of principal executive offices)
98006-1350
(Zip Code)
(425) 378-4000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per shareTMUSThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).                Yes  No 
As of June 30, 2022, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates was $80.8 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. As of February 10, 2023, there were 1,219,383,110 shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K will be incorporated by reference from certain portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A or will be included in an amendment to this Report.



T-Mobile US, Inc.
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2022

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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) of T-Mobile US, Inc. (“T-Mobile,” “we,” “our,” “us” or the “Company”) includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, including information concerning our future results of operations, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are generally identified by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “could” or similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions, which are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. The following important factors, along with the Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K, could affect future results and cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:
competition, industry consolidation and changes in the market for wireless communications services and other forms of connectivity;
criminal cyberattacks, disruption, data loss or other security breaches;
our inability to take advantage of technological developments on a timely basis;
our inability to retain or motivate key personnel, hire qualified personnel or maintain our corporate culture;
system failures and business disruptions, allowing for unauthorized use of or interference with our network and other systems;
the scarcity and cost of additional wireless spectrum, and regulations relating to spectrum use;
the difficulties in maintaining multiple billing systems following our merger (the “Merger”) with Sprint Corporation (“Sprint”) pursuant to a Business Combination Agreement with Sprint and the other parties named therein (as amended, the “Business Combination Agreement”) and any unanticipated difficulties, disruption, or significant delays in our long-term strategy to convert Sprint’s legacy customers onto T-Mobile’s billing platforms;
the impacts of the actions we have taken and conditions we have agreed to in connection with the regulatory proceedings and approvals of the Merger and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement (collectively, the “Transactions”), including the acquisition by DISH Network Corporation (“DISH”) of the prepaid wireless business operated under the Boost Mobile and Sprint prepaid brands (excluding the Assurance brand Lifeline customers and the prepaid wireless customers of Shenandoah Personal Communications Company LLC (“Shentel”) and Swiftel Communications, Inc.), including customer accounts, inventory, contracts, intellectual property and certain other specified assets, and the assumption of certain related liabilities (collectively, the “Prepaid Transaction”), the complaint and proposed final judgment agreed to by us, Deutsche Telekom AG (“DT”), Sprint, SoftBank Group Corp. (“SoftBank”) and DISH with the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, which was approved by the Court on April 1, 2020, the proposed commitments filed with the Secretary of the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), which we announced on May 20, 2019, certain national security commitments and undertakings, and any other commitments or undertakings entered into, including but not limited to, those we have made to certain states and nongovernmental organizations (collectively, the “Government Commitments”), and the challenges in satisfying the Government Commitments in the required time frames and the significant cumulative costs incurred in tracking and monitoring compliance over multiple years;
adverse economic, political or market conditions in the U.S. and international markets, including changes resulting from increases in inflation or interest rates, supply chain disruptions and impacts of current geopolitical instability caused by the war in Ukraine;
our inability to manage the ongoing commercial and transition services arrangements entered into in connection with the Prepaid Transaction, and known or unknown liabilities arising in connection therewith;
the timing and effects of any future acquisition, divestiture, investment, or merger involving us;
any disruption or failure of our third parties (including key suppliers) to provide products or services for the operation of our business;
our inability to fully realize the synergy benefits from the Transactions in the expected time frame;
our substantial level of indebtedness and our inability to service our debt obligations in accordance with their terms or to comply with the restrictive covenants contained therein;
changes in the credit market conditions, credit rating downgrades or an inability to access debt markets;
restrictive covenants including the agreements governing our indebtedness and other financings;
the risk of future material weaknesses we may identify or any other failure by us to maintain effective internal controls, and the resulting significant costs and reputational damage;
any changes in regulations or in the regulatory framework under which we operate;
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laws and regulations relating to the handling of privacy and data protection;
unfavorable outcomes of and increased costs from existing or future regulatory or legal proceedings;
our offering of regulated financial services products and exposure to a wide variety of state and federal regulations;
new or amended tax laws or regulations or administrative interpretations and judicial decisions affecting the scope or application of tax laws or regulations;
our wireless licenses, including those controlled through leasing agreements, are subject to renewal and may be revoked;
our exclusive forum provision as provided in our Fifth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”);
interests of DT, our controlling stockholder, that may differ from the interests of other stockholders;
future sales of our common stock by DT and SoftBank and our inability to attract additional equity financing outside the United States due to foreign ownership limitations by the FCC; and
our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program (as defined in Note 15 – Repurchases of Common Stock of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements) may not be fully consummated, and our share repurchase program may not enhance long-term stockholder value.

In addition, historical, current, and forward-looking environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) related statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, and internal controls and processes that continue to evolve. Our ESG initiatives are subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including regarding the evolving nature of data availability, quality, and assessment; related methodological concerns; our ability to implement various initiatives under expected timeframes, cost, and complexity; our dependency on third-parties to provide certain information and to comply with applicable laws and policies; and other unforeseen events or conditions. These factors, as well as others, may cause results to differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Additionally, we may provide information that is not necessarily material for SEC reporting purposes but that is informed by various ESG standards and frameworks (including standards for the measurement of underlying data), internal controls, and assumptions or third-party information that are still evolving and subject to change. Our disclosures based on any standards may change due to revisions in framework requirements, availability of information, changes in our business or applicable governmental policies, or other factors, some of which may be beyond our control.

Investors and others should note that we announce material information to our investors using our investor relations website (https://investor.t-mobile.com), newsroom website (https://t-mobile.com/news), press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. We intend to also use certain social media accounts as means of disclosing information about us and our services and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD (the @TMobileIR Twitter account (https://twitter.com/TMobileIR), the @MikeSievert Twitter account (https://twitter.com/MikeSievert), which Mr. Sievert also uses as a means for personal communications and observations, and the @TMobileCFO Twitter Account (https://twitter.com/tmobilecfo) and our Chief Financial Officer’s LinkedIn account (https://www.linkedin.com/in/peter-osvaldik-3887394), both of which Mr. Osvaldik also uses as a means for personal communication and observations). The information we post through these social media channels may be deemed material. Accordingly, investors should monitor these social media channels in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. The social media channels that we intend to use as a means of disclosing the information described above may be updated from time to time as listed on our Investor Relations website.

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PART I.

Item 1. Business

Business Overview and Strategy

Un-carrier Strategy

We are America’s supercharged Un-carrier. Through our Un-carrier strategy, we have disrupted the wireless communications services industry by actively engaging with and listening to our customers and focusing on eliminating their existing pain points. This includes providing added value and what we believe is an exceptional experience while implementing signature Un-carrier initiatives that have changed the wireless industry. We ended annual service contracts, overages, unpredictable international roaming fees and data buckets, among other things. We are inspired by a relentless customer experience focus, consistently leading the wireless industry in customer care by delivering award-winning customer experience with our “Team of Experts,” which drives our record-high customer satisfaction levels while enabling operational efficiencies.

With America’s largest, fastest, most reliable and most awarded 5G network, the Un-carrier strives to offer customers unrivaled coverage and capacity where they live, work and travel. We believe our network is the foundation of our success and powers everything we do. Our “layer cake” of spectrum provides an unmatched 5G experience to our customers, which consists of our foundational layer of low-band, our mid-band and our millimeter-wave (“mmWave”) spectrum licenses (See “Spectrum Position” below). Our layer cake broadens and deepens our nationwide 5G network, enabling accelerated innovation and increased competition in the U.S. wireless and broadband industries.

We continue to expand the footprint and improve the quality of our network, enabling us to provide what we believe are outstanding wireless experiences for customers who should not have to compromise on quality and value. Our network allows us to deliver new, innovative products and services, such as our High Speed Internet fixed wireless product, with the same customer experience focus and industry-disrupting mindset that we have adopted in our attempt to redefine the wireless communications services industry in the United States in the customers’ favor.

Our Operations

As of December 31, 2022, we provide wireless communications services to 113.6 million postpaid and prepaid customers and generate revenue by providing affordable wireless communications services to these customers, as well as a wide selection of wireless devices and accessories. We also provide wholesale wireless services to various partners, who then offer the services for sale to their customers. Our most significant expenses relate to operating and expanding our network, providing a full range of devices, acquiring and retaining high-quality customers and compensating employees. We provide services, devices and accessories across our flagship brands, T-Mobile and Metro by T-Mobile, through our owned and operated retail stores, as well as through our websites (www.t-mobile.com and www.metrobyt-mobile.com), T-Mobile app, customer care channels and through national retailers. In addition, we sell devices to dealers and other third-party distributors for resale through independent third-party retail outlets and a variety of third-party websites. The information on our websites is not part of this Form 10-K. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information.

Services and Products

We provide mobile wireless communications services through a variety of service plan options. We also offer for sale to customers a wide selection of wireless devices, including smartphones, wearables, tablets, home broadband routers and other mobile communication devices that are manufactured by various suppliers.

Our most popular service plan offering is Magenta Max, which allows customers to subscribe for wireless communications services separately from the purchase of a device. This plan includes unlimited talk, text and data on our network, 5G access at no extra cost, scam protection features and more. We also offer an Essentials rate plan for customers who want the basics at a lower price point, as well as specific rate plans to qualifying customers, including Business, Military and Veterans, First Responder, and Unlimited 55+.

At the time of device purchase, qualified customers can finance all or a portion of the individual device or accessory purchase price over an installment period, generally of 24 months, using an equipment installment plan (“EIP”). For certain existing customers, devices are leased over an initial period of up to 18 months and may be upgraded when eligibility requirements are met.
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In addition to our mobile wireless communications services, we offer High Speed Internet, which is a fixed wireless product that utilizes the excess capacity of our nationwide 5G network. Our fixed wireless product is available to millions of domestic households, providing an alternative to traditional landline internet service providers and expanding access to many people who have historically had only one choice or no access to traditional home broadband. With our High Speed Internet plan, customers can access the internet without worrying about annual service contracts, data overages or hidden fees.

We also provide products and services that are complementary to our wireless communications services, including device protection, financial services, advertising and wireline communication services to domestic and international customers. In September 2022, we entered into an agreement for the sale of the Wireline Business. See Note 16 – Wireline for additional information.

Customers

We provide wireless communications services to a variety of customers needing connectivity, but focus primarily on two categories of customers:

Postpaid customers generally are qualified to pay after receiving wireless communications services utilizing phones, High Speed Internet, tablets, wearables, DIGITS and other connected devices; and
Prepaid customers generally pay for wireless communications services, including High Speed Internet, in advance. Our prepaid customers include customers of T-Mobile and Metro by T-Mobile.

Our customer base includes consumers as well as business customers, who are provided services under the T-Mobile for Business brand.

We provide Machine-to-Machine (“M2M”) and Mobile Virtual Network Operator (“MVNO”) customers access to our network. This access and the customer relationship are managed by wholesale partners, with whom we have commercial agreements permitting them to sell services utilizing our network.

We generate the majority of our service revenues by providing wireless communications services to postpaid and prepaid customers. Our ability to attract and retain postpaid and prepaid customers is important to our business in the generation of service revenues, equipment revenues and other revenues. In 2022, our service revenues generated by providing wireless communications services by customer category were:

75% Postpaid customers;
16% Prepaid customers; and
9% Wholesale and other services.

Substantially all of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, were earned in the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Network Strategy

Utilizing our multi-layer spectrum portfolio, our mission is to become “Famous for Network.” We have deployed low-band, mid-band and mmWave spectrum dedicated for 5G across our dense and broad network to create what we believe is America’s largest, fastest, most reliable and most awarded 5G network.

The Merger greatly enhanced our spectrum position. Integration of the spectrum and network assets acquired in the Merger is expected to continue through 2023. Our integration strategy includes deploying the acquired spectrum on the combined network assets to supplement capacity, migrating Sprint customers to our network and optimizing the combined assets by decommissioning redundant sites. As of December 31, 2022, we have decommissioned substantially all targeted Sprint macro sites. As a result of the Merger, we have achieved, and expect to continue to achieve, significant synergies and cost reductions by eliminating redundancies within our network, as well as through other business processes and operations.

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Spectrum Position

We provide wireless communications services utilizing low-band spectrum licenses covering our 600 MHz and 700 MHz spectrum, mid-band spectrum licenses, such as Advanced Wireless Services (“AWS”), Personal Communications Services (“PCS”) and 2.5 GHz spectrum, and mmWave spectrum.

We controlled, or expected to control based on previously announced auction results, an average of 388 MHz of combined low- and mid-band spectrum nationwide as of December 31, 2022. This spectrum is comprised of:
An average of 38 MHz in the 600 MHz band;
An average of 10 MHz in the 700 MHz band;
An average of 14 MHz in the 800 MHz band;
An average of 40 MHz in the 1700 MHz AWS band;
An average of 66 MHz in the 1900 MHz PCS band;
An average of 181 MHz in the 2.5 GHz band;
An average of 12 MHz in the 3.45 GHz band; and
An average of 27 MHz in the C-band.
We controlled an average of 1,157 GHz of combined mmWave spectrum licenses.
In January 2022, the FCC announced that we were the winning bidder of 199 licenses in Auction 110 (mid-band spectrum) for an aggregate purchase price of $2.9 billion. On May 4, 2022, the FCC issued to us the licenses won in Auction 110.
In August 2022, we entered into license purchase agreements pursuant to which we will acquire spectrum in the 600 MHz band in exchange for total cash consideration of $3.5 billion. See Note 6 – Goodwill, Spectrum License Transactions and Other Intangible Assets for additional details.
In September 2022, the FCC announced that we were the winning bidder of 7,156 licenses in Auction 108 (2.5 GHz spectrum) for an aggregate price of $304 million. The timing of when the licenses will be issued will be determined by the FCC after all post-auction procedures have been completed.
We plan to evaluate future spectrum purchases in future auctions and in the secondary market to further augment our current spectrum position.
As of December 31, 2022, we had equipment deployed on approximately 79,000 macro cell sites and 41,000 small cell/distributed antenna system sites across our network.

5G Leadership

Our 5G network is America’s largest, fastest, most reliable and most awarded:

As of December 31, 2022, our Ultra Capacity 5G utilizing mid-band and mmWave spectrum covers 263 million people.
As of December 31, 2022, our total 5G coverage, including low-band spectrum, covers 325 million people, reaching 98% of Americans.

Competition

The wireless communications services industry is highly competitive. We are the second largest provider of wireless communications services in the U.S. as measured by our total postpaid and prepaid customers. Our competitors include other national carriers, such as AT&T Inc. (“AT&T”) and Verizon Communications, Inc. (“Verizon”). In addition, our competitors include numerous smaller and regional carriers, MVNOs, including Comcast Corporation, Charter Communications, Inc., Altice USA, Inc. and DISH, many of which offer no-contract, postpaid and prepaid service plans. Competitors also include providers who offer similar communication services, such as voice, messaging and data services, using alternative technologies. Competitive factors within the wireless communications services industry include pricing, market saturation, service and product offerings, customer experience, network investment and quality, development and deployment of technologies and regulatory changes. Some of our competitors have shown a willingness to use aggressive pricing or offer bundled services as a potential source of differentiation. 

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Human Capital

Employees

As of December 31, 2022, we employed approximately 71,000 full-time and part-time employees, including network, retail, administrative and customer support functions.

Attraction and Retention

We employ a highly skilled workforce within a broad range of functions. Substantially all of our employees are located throughout the United States, including Puerto Rico, to serve our nationwide network and retail operations. Our headquarters are located in Bellevue, Washington, and Overland Park, Kansas.

We attract and retain our workforce through a dynamic and inclusive culture and by providing a comprehensive set of benefits, including:

Competitive medical, dental and vision benefits;
Family-building benefits designed to meet the diverse needs of our employees, including IVF and IUI, adoption and surrogacy benefits;
Annual stock grants to all full-time and part-time employees and a discounted Employee Stock Purchase Program;
A 401(k) Savings Plan;
Nationwide minimum pay of at least $20 per hour to all full-time and part-time employees;
LiveMagenta: a custom-branded program for employee engagement and well-being, including free access to life coaches, financial coaches and tools for healthy living;
Access to personal health advocates offering independent guidance;
A generous paid time off program, including paid family leave;
Tuition assistance for all full-time and part-time employees, including full tuition partnerships with multiple schools; and
A matching program for employee donations and volunteering.

Training and Development

Career growth and development is foundational to T-Mobile’s culture and success. We want to deliver the best experiences from the best teams, and one way we do that is by offering an array of development programs and resources to build diverse talent and empower our people to succeed through every step of their career. It is all easily accessible on our Magenta University site, which is our one-stop shop for all things career development and learning. The online learning portal is designed to put employees in the driver’s seat and give them access to mentoring, training, videos, books, job search and interview tips, and much more.

By strategically investing in the following three key areas of career development and learning, we are developing our talent now and for the future.

Evolve skills and careers – Learn every day, champion relentless improvement, develop critical skills, explore career possibilities, and build the desired career;
Advance leadership expertise – Build critical leadership capabilities, enable leadership growth at all levels, and develop skills to lead in the future; and
Champion diversity, equity and inclusion (“DE&I”) - Promote inclusive habits and behaviors, enhance belonging and connectedness, and advocate for equitable opportunities.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

DE&I have always been a part of the Un-carrier culture, and we are committed to having DE&I touch every aspect of our future. Our Equity in Action Plan is a five-year plan that spans the values we live by, how we invest in and provide opportunities for our employees, how we select the suppliers we do business with and how we advocate for our communities.

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For our employees, we have established six DE&I Employee Resource Groups and four sub-affinity groups that have helped us establish and maintain a culture of inclusion. Currently, we have over 45 DE&I chapters across the nation that help spearhead volunteer opportunities, events and meaningful conversation with employees at a local level. Our DE&I Employee Resource Groups include the following:

Accessibility Community at T-Mobile;
Multicultural Alliance;
Asia Pacific & Allies Network;
Black Empowerment Network;
Indigenous Peoples Network;
Magenta Latinx Network;
Multigenerational Network;
Pride;
Veterans & Allies Network; and
Women & Allies Network.

As part of T-Mobile’s Equity In Action Plan and Promises, we have established an External Diversity and Inclusion Council in connection with our civil rights memorandum of understanding. The council includes civil rights leaders representing a wide range of underrepresented communities. Together with T-Mobile, the council will help identify ways to improve our efforts in focus areas such as corporate governance, workforce recruitment and retention, procurement, entrepreneurship, philanthropy and community investment. Since April 2020, we have achieved a significant portion of the Equity In Action Promises.

As DE&I are instrumental to our culture and values, we are also on a mission to create fair and equitable opportunities for all suppliers, including veteran-owned, disability-owned, woman-owned, minority-owned, LGBT-owned and small and disadvantaged businesses. We have implemented a Supplier Diversity Category Management Strategy for our network technology procurement organization to help identify opportunities and develop actionable targets for progress on this topic.

Environmental Sustainability

Reducing Carbon Footprint

We are working to reduce the impact of our operations on the climate by setting carbon reduction goals that are aligned with science and investing in renewable energy. We are reducing our carbon footprint through several initiatives, including:

Setting a science-based net-zero target for 2040 that includes Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions;
Investing in renewable energy, as evidenced by our RE100 pledge, a global initiative that unites businesses committed to 100% renewable electricity. We first met this goal in 2021 and then again in 2022 by matching our electricity usage with renewable energy credits acquired through a variety of sources, including through our engagement in Virtual Power Purchasing Agreements and a Green Direct tariff agreement with nine clean energy providers for expected annual provision of approximately 3.5 million megawatt hours of renewable electricity;
Continuously testing and evaluating new, efficient equipment for our facilities, including switch stations, cell sites, retail stores and customer experience centers to reduce energy consumption; and
Promoting the circular economy through our device reuse and recycle program, which collects millions of devices for reuse, resale, and recycling annually.

Responsible Sourcing

We believe our suppliers are a valuable extension of our business and corporate values. Our Supplier Code of Conduct outlines expectations around ethical business practices for our suppliers. We require our suppliers to operate in full compliance with the laws, rules, regulations and ethical standards of the countries in which they operate or provide products or services. We expect our suppliers to share our commitment to ethical conduct and environmentally responsible business practices while they conduct business with or on behalf of us.

We employ a third-party risk management (“TPRM”) process to screen for anti-corruption, global sanctions, human rights and environmental risks before engaging with a supplier. Our TPRM process also continuously monitors current suppliers for policy violations and risks.
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Regulation

The FCC regulates many key aspects of our business, including licensing, construction, the operation and use of our network, modifications of our network, control and ownership of our licenses and authorizations, the sale, transfer and acquisition of certain licenses, domestic roaming arrangements and interconnection agreements, pursuant to its authority under the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (“Communications Act”). The FCC has a number of complex requirements that affect our operations and pending proceedings regarding additional or modified requirements that could increase our costs or diminish our revenues. For example, the FCC has rules regarding provision of 911, 988 and E-911 services, porting telephone numbers, interconnection, roaming, internet openness or net neutrality, disabilities access, privacy and cybersecurity, consumer protection and the universal service and Lifeline programs. Many of these and other issues are being considered in ongoing proceedings, and we cannot predict whether or how such actions will affect our business, financial condition or operating results. Our ability to provide services and generate revenues could be harmed by adverse regulatory action or changes to existing laws and regulations. In addition, regulation of companies that offer competing services can impact our business indirectly.

Except for operations in certain unlicensed frequency bands, wireless communications services providers generally must be licensed by the FCC to provide communications services at specified spectrum frequencies within specified geographic areas, and must comply with the rules and policies governing the use of the spectrum as adopted by the FCC. The FCC issues each license for a fixed period of time, typically 10-15 years depending on the particular licenses. While the FCC has generally renewed licenses given to operating companies like us, the FCC has authority both to revoke a license for cause and to deny a license renewal if a renewal is not in the public interest. Furthermore, we could be subject to fines, forfeitures and other penalties for failure to comply with FCC regulations, even if any such noncompliance was unintentional. In extreme cases, penalties can include revocation of our licenses. The loss of any licenses, or any related fines or forfeitures, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the FCC retains the right to modify rules related to use of licensed spectrum, which could impact T-Mobile’s ability to provide services.

Additionally, Congress’s and the FCC’s allocation of additional spectrum for broadband commercial mobile radio service (“CMRS”), which includes cellular, PCS and other wireless services, could significantly increase and intensify competition. We cannot assess the impact that any developments that may occur in the U.S. economy or any future spectrum allocations by the FCC may have on license values. FCC spectrum auctions and other market developments may adversely affect the market value of our licenses or our competitive position in the future. A significant decline in the value of our licenses could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the FCC periodically reviews its policies on how to evaluate carriers’ spectrum holdings. A change in these policies could affect spectrum resources and competition among us and other carriers.

Congress and the FCC have imposed limitations on foreign ownership of CMRS licensees that exceed 20% direct ownership or 25% indirect ownership through an entity controlling the licensee. The FCC has ruled that higher levels of indirect foreign ownership, even up to 100%, are presumptively consistent with the public interest, but must be reviewed and approved. Consistent with that established policy, the FCC has issued a declaratory ruling authorizing up to 100% ownership of our Company by DT.

For our Educational Broadband Service (“EBS”) licenses in the 2.5 GHz band, FCC rules previously limited eligibility to hold EBS licenses to accredited educational institutions and certain governmental, religious and nonprofit entities, while permitting those license holders to lease up to 95% of their capacity for non-educational purposes. Therefore, we have historically accessed EBS spectrum primarily through long-term leasing arrangements with EBS license holders. Our EBS spectrum leases typically have an initial term equal to the remaining term of the EBS license, with an option to renew the lease for additional terms, for a total lease term of up to 30 years. On April 27, 2020, the FCC lifted the restriction on who can hold EBS licenses and the 30-year limitation on lease duration, among other changes. The elimination of these restrictions allows current license holders to sell their licenses, including to T-Mobile. While a majority of our leases have contractual provisions enabling us to match offers, we may be forced to compete with others to purchase 2.5 GHz licenses on the secondary market and expend additional capital earlier than we may have anticipated. T-Mobile has started to acquire some of these EBS licenses, but we continue to lease spectrum in this band and expect that to be the case for some time.

While the Communications Act generally preempts state and local governments from regulating the entry of, or the rates charged by, wireless communications services providers, certain state and local governments regulate other terms and conditions of wireless service, including billing, termination of service arrangements and the imposition of early termination fees, advertising, network outages, the use of devices while driving, service mapping, protection of consumer information, zoning and land use. Notwithstanding this federal preemption, several states are considering or have passed laws or regulations
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that could potentially set prices, minimum performance standards and/or restrictions on service discontinuation that could impact our business in those states.

In addition, following the FCC’s adoption of the 2017 Restoring Internet Freedom (“RIF”) Order reclassifying broadband internet access services as non-common carrier “information services”, a number of states have sought to impose state-specific net neutrality, rate-setting, and privacy requirements on providers’ broadband services. The FCC’s RIF Order expressly preempted such state efforts, which are inconsistent with the FCC’s federal deregulatory approach. In 2019, however, the DC Circuit issued a ruling largely upholding the RIF Order, but also vacating the portion of the ruling broadly preempting state/local measures regulating broadband services. The court left open the prospect that particular state laws could still unlawfully conflict with the FCC RIF Order and be preempted; court challenges to some state enactments are pending.

While most states pursuing net neutrality legislation are largely seeking to codify the repealed federal rules, there are differences in some states, notably California, which has passed separate privacy and net neutrality legislation, Colorado, Connecticut, Utah and Virginia, which have passed privacy laws; and New York, which has passed a broadband rate-setting law. There are also efforts within Congress to pass federal legislation to codify uniform federal privacy and net neutrality requirements. Ensuring the preemption of separate state requirements, including the California laws, is critical to this effort. If not preempted or rescinded, separate state requirements will impose significant business costs and could also result in increased litigation costs and enforcement risks. State authority over wireless broadband services will remain unsettled until final action by the courts or Congress.

In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and other federal agencies have jurisdiction over some consumer protection matters and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices with respect to the provision of non-common carrier services. Further, the FCC and the Federal Aviation Administration regulate the siting, lighting and construction of transmitter towers and antennae. Tower siting and construction are also subject to state and local zoning, as well as federal statutes regarding environmental and historic preservation. The future costs to comply with all relevant regulations are, to some extent, unknown, and changes to regulations, or the applicability of regulations, could result in higher operating and capital expenses, or reduced revenues in the future.

Available Information

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically at www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are also publicly available free of charge on the investor relations section of our website at investor.t-mobile.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our corporate governance guidelines, director selection guidelines, code of ethics for senior financial officers, code of business conduct, speak up policy, supplier code of conduct, and charters for the audit, compensation, nominating and corporate governance, executive and CEO selection committees of our Board of Directors are also posted on the investor relations section of our website at investor.t-mobile.com. The information on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to the other information contained in this Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating T-Mobile. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, or operating results, as well as the price of our common stock and other securities, could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks.

Risks Related to Our Business and the Wireless Industry

Competition, industry consolidation, and changes in the market for wireless communications services and other forms of connectivity could negatively affect our ability to attract and retain customers and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We have multiple competitors that possess either more or different access to wireless assets, and yet we compete for customers based principally on service/device offerings, price, network coverage, speed and quality, and customer service. We expect the wireless industry’s customer growth rate to moderate over time in comparison with historical growth rates, leading to ongoing competition for customers. We also expect that our customers’ appetite for data services will place increasing demands on wireless service providers. This competition and increasing demands for data services will continue to put pressure on pricing and margins as companies, including us, compete for a relatively fixed pool of customers with an ever-expanding variety of
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products and services. Our ability to compete will depend upon, among other things, continued absolute and relative improvement in network quality, capacity and customer service, effective marketing and selling of products and services, innovation, and attractive pricing, all of which will involve significant expenses.

We face increased competition from other service providers in the connectivity sector from within and outside of the wireless industry, including from cable, fiber and satellite providers, as industry sectors converge. Cable companies such as Comcast, Charter, and Altice are diversifying outside cable, voice and broadband services to also offer wireless services. Fiber companies such as Lumen Technologies and Windstream have announced plans for fiber buildouts, often supported by government funding. We expect DISH, which has already acquired several MVNOs, to build a wireless network and offer competitive postpaid and prepaid wireless service plans. Verizon and AT&T have refocused on connectivity services, including fiber builds and deployment of next generation wireless technology, and we expect both companies to increase competitive pressure, including by expanding partnerships and offerings. These factors could make it more difficult for us to continue to attract and retain customers, by adversely affecting our competitive position and ability to grow, including affecting our fixed wireless High Speed Internet growth plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We have seen, and continue to expect, additional joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances in the converged connectivity sector, which could result in larger competitors competing for a limited number of customers. Further consolidation could negatively impact our businesses, including wholesale. For example, we have experienced and will continue to experience declining revenues from our wholesale business as Verizon migrates legacy TracFone customers off the T-Mobile network and DISH services more of its Boost Mobile customers with their standalone network. Our competitors may also enter into exclusive handset, device, or content arrangements, execute pervasive advertising and marketing campaigns, or otherwise improve their cost position relative to ours, making it more difficult for us to compete and negatively impacting our business. In addition, refusal of our competitors and partners to provide critical access to resources and inputs, such as roaming and/or backhaul services to us, on reasonable terms could negatively impact our business.

We have experienced criminal cyberattacks and could in the future be further harmed by disruption, data loss or other security breaches, whether directly or indirectly through third parties.

Our business involves the receipt, storage, and transmission of confidential information about our customers, such as sensitive personal, account and payment card information, confidential information about our employees and suppliers, and other sensitive information about our Company, such as our business plans, transactions, financial information, and intellectual property (collectively, “Confidential Information”). We are subject to persistent cyberattacks and threats to our networks, systems, and supply chain from a variety of bad actors, many of whom attempt to gain access to and compromise Confidential Information by exploiting bugs, errors, misconfigurations or other vulnerabilities in our networks and other systems (including purchased and third-party systems) or by engaging in credential harvesting or social engineering. In some cases, these bad actors may obtain unauthorized access to Confidential Information utilizing credentials taken from our customers, employees, or third parties. Other bad actors aim to cause serious operational disruptions to our business or networks through other means, such as through ransomware or distributed denial of services attacks.
Cyberattacks against companies like ours have increased in frequency and potential harm over time, and the methods used to gain unauthorized access constantly evolve, making it increasingly difficult to anticipate, prevent, and/or detect incidents successfully in every instance. They are perpetrated by a variety of groups and persons, including state-sponsored parties, malicious actors, employees, contractors, or other unrelated third parties. Some of these persons reside in jurisdictions where law enforcement measures to address such attacks are ineffective or unavailable, and such attacks may even be perpetrated by or at the behest of foreign governments.

In addition, we routinely provide certain Confidential Information to third-party providers whose products and services are used in our business operations, including as part of our IT systems, such as cloud services. These third-party providers have experienced in the past, and will continue to experience in the future, cyberattacks that involve attempts to obtain unauthorized access to our Confidential Information and/or to create operational disruptions that could adversely affect our business, and these providers also face other security challenges common to all parties that collect and process information.

In August 2021, we disclosed that our systems were subject to a criminal cyberattack that compromised certain data of millions of our current customers, former customers, and prospective customers, including, in some instances, social security numbers, names, addresses, dates of birth and driver’s license/identification numbers. With the assistance of outside cybersecurity experts, we located and closed the unauthorized access to our systems and identified current, former, and prospective customers whose information was impacted and notified them, consistent with state and federal requirements. We have incurred certain cyberattack-related expenses, including costs to remediate the attack, provide additional customer support and enhance
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customer protection, and expect to incur additional expense in future periods resulting from the attack. For more information, see “Recent Cyberattacks” in the Overview section of our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. As a result of the August 2021 cyberattack, we are subject to numerous claims, lawsuits and regulatory inquiries, the ongoing costs of which may be material, and we may be subject to further regulatory inquiries and private litigation. For more information, see “– Contingencies and Litigation – Litigation and Regulatory Matters” in Note 19 – Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In January 2023, we disclosed that a bad actor was obtaining data through a single Application Programming Interface (“API”) without authorization. Based on our investigation to date, the impacted API is only able to provide a limited set of customer account data, including name, billing address, email, phone number, date of birth, T-Mobile account number and information such as the number of lines on the account and plan features. The result from our investigation to date indicates that the bad actor(s) obtained data from this API for approximately 37 million current postpaid and prepaid customer accounts, though many of these accounts did not include the full data set. We believe that the bad actor first retrieved data through the impacted API starting on or around November 25, 2022. We continue to investigate the incident and have notified individuals whose information was impacted consistent with state and federal requirements.

As a result of the August 2021 cyberattack and the January 2023 cyberattack, we may incur significant costs or experience other material financial impacts, which may not be covered by, or may exceed the coverage limits of, our cyber liability insurance, and such costs and impacts may have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

In addition to the recent cyberattacks, we have experienced other unrelated immaterial incidents involving unauthorized access to certain Confidential Information. Typically, these incidents have involved attempts to commit fraud by taking control of a customer’s phone line, often by using compromised credentials. In other cases, the incidents have involved unauthorized access to certain of our customers’ private information, including credit card information, financial data, social security numbers or passwords, and to certain of our intellectual property.

Our procedures and safeguards to prevent unauthorized access to Confidential Information and to defend against cyberattacks seeking to disrupt our operations must be continually evaluated and enhanced to address the ever-evolving threat landscape and changing cybersecurity regulations. These preventative actions require the investment of significant resources and management time and attention. Additionally, we do not have control of the cybersecurity systems, breach prevention, and response protocols of our third-party providers. While T-Mobile may have contractual rights to assess the effectiveness of many of our providers’ systems and protocols, we do not have the means to know or assess the effectiveness of all of our providers’ systems and controls at all times. We cannot provide any assurances that actions taken by us, or our third-party providers, will adequately repel a significant cyberattack or prevent or substantially mitigate the impacts of cybersecurity breaches or misuses of Confidential Information, unauthorized access to our networks or systems or exploits against third-party environments, or that we, or our third-party providers, will be able to effectively identify, investigate, and remediate such incidents in a timely manner or at all. We expect to continue to be the target of cyberattacks, given the nature of our business, and we expect the same with respect to our third-party providers. If we fail to protect Confidential Information or to prevent operational disruptions from future cyberattacks, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows, and operating results.

If we are unable to take advantage of technological developments on a timely basis, we may experience a decline in demand for our services or face challenges in implementing or evolving our business strategy.

Significant technological changes continue to impact our industry. In order to grow and remain competitive, we will need to adapt to changes in available technology, continually invest in our network, increase network capacity, enhance our existing offerings, and introduce new offerings to meet our current and potential customers’ changing service demands. Enhancing our network, including the ongoing deployment of our 5G network, is subject to risks related to equipment changes and the migration of customers from older technologies. Negative public perception of, and regulations regarding, the perceived health risks relating to 5G networks could undermine market acceptance of our 5G services. Adopting new and sophisticated technologies may result in implementation issues, such as scheduling and supplier delays, unexpected or increased costs, technological constraints, regulatory permitting issues, customer dissatisfaction, and other issues that could cause delays in launching new technological capabilities, which in turn could result in significant costs or reduce the anticipated benefits of the upgrades. If our new services fail to retain or gain acceptance in the marketplace or if costs associated with these services are higher than anticipated, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, brand, financial condition, and operating results.
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We rely on highly skilled personnel throughout all levels of our business. Our business could be harmed if we are unable to retain or motivate key personnel, hire qualified personnel, or maintain our corporate culture.

The market for highly skilled workers and leaders is extremely competitive. We believe our future success depends in substantial part on our ability to recruit, hire, motivate, develop, and retain talented personnel for all areas of our organization, including our CEO and the other members of our senior leadership team. Doing so may be difficult due to many factors, including fluctuations in economic and industry conditions, changes to U.S. immigration policy, competitors’ hiring and remote working policies and practices, employee intolerance for the significant changes within, and demands on, our Company and our industry, and the effectiveness of our compensation programs. If key employees depart or we are unable to recruit successfully, our business could be negatively impacted. Further, inflationary cost pressures may increase our costs, including employee compensation, and lead to increased employee attrition to the extent our compensation does not keep up with inflation, particularly if our competitors’ compensation does.

In addition, certain members of our senior leadership team, including our CEO have term employment agreements with us. Our inability to extend the terms of these employment agreements or to replace these members of our senior leadership team at the end of their terms with qualified and capable successors could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

In addition, the new hybrid work model introduced during the global COVID-19 pandemic (the “Pandemic”) required T-Mobile to change and evolve our company culture. As our culture continues to evolve, we may experience adverse impacts on our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel, as existing and prospective employees may experience uncertainty about their future roles with us. If key employees depart, our business could be negatively impacted. We may incur significant costs in identifying, hiring and replacing employees, and we may lose significant expertise and talent. As a result, we may not be able to meet our business plan, and our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

System failures and business disruptions may prevent us from providing reliable service, which could materially adversely affect our reputation and financial condition.

We rely upon systems and networks - those of third-party suppliers and other providers, in addition to our own - to provide and support our service offerings. System, network, or infrastructure failures resulting from a number of causes may prevent us from providing reliable service. Examples of these risks include:

physical damage, power surges or outages, equipment failure, or other service disruptions with respect to both our wireless and wireline networks, including those resulting from severe weather, storms and natural disasters, which may occur more frequently or with greater intensity as a result of global climate change, public health crises, terrorist attacks, political instability and volatility and acts of war;
chronic changes in physical conditions, such as sea-level rise or changes in temperature or precipitation patterns, which may impact the operating conditions of our infrastructure or other infrastructure we rely on;
human error, such as responding to deceptive communications or unintentionally executing malicious code;
unauthorized access to our IT and business systems or to our network and critical infrastructure and those of our suppliers and other providers;
supplier failures or delays; and
system failures or outages of our business systems or communications network.

Such events could cause us to lose customers and revenue, incur expenses, suffer reputational damage, and subject us to fines, penalties, adverse actions or judgments, litigation, or governmental investigations. Remediation costs could include liability for information loss, costs of repairing infrastructure and systems, and/or costs of incentives offered to customers. Our insurance may not cover or may not be adequate to fully reimburse us for costs and losses associated with such events, and such events may also impact the availability of insurance at costs and other terms we find acceptable for future events.

The scarcity and cost of additional wireless spectrum, and regulations relating to spectrum use, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We continue to deploy spectrum to expand and deepen our 5G coverage, maintain our quality of service, meet increasing customer demands, and deploy new technologies. In order to expand and differentiate from our competitors, we will continue to actively seek to make additional investment in spectrum, which could be significant.

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The continued interest in, and acquisition of, spectrum by existing carriers and others, including speculators, may reduce our ability to acquire and/or increase the cost of acquiring spectrum in the secondary market, including leasing, or purchasing additional spectrum in the 2.5 GHz band, or negatively impact our ability to gain access to spectrum through other means, including government auctions. Additionally, increased interest from third parties in acquiring spectrum may make it difficult to renew leases of some of our existing 2.5 GHz spectrum holdings in the future. Additionally, the FCC may not be able to provide sufficient additional spectrum to auction or we may be unable to secure the spectrum necessary to maintain or enhance our competitive position in any auction we may elect to participate in or in the secondary market, on favorable terms or at all. Any return on our investment in spectrum depends on our ability to attract additional customers and to provide additional services and usage to existing customers.

The FCC, or other government entities, may impose conditions on the acquisition and use of new wireless broadband mobile spectrum that may negatively impact our ability to obtain spectrum economically or in appropriate configurations or coverage areas.

If we cannot acquire needed spectrum from the government or otherwise, if competitors acquire spectrum that will allow them to provide services competitive with our services, or if we cannot deploy services over acquired spectrum on a timely basis without burdensome conditions, at reasonable cost, and while maintaining network quality levels, our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

We are modernizing our billing system architecture for our customers. As part of this strategy, we are converting Sprint’s legacy customers onto T-Mobile’s billing platforms. As a result, we will operate and maintain multiple billing systems until such conversion is completed. Any unanticipated difficulties, disruption, or significant delays in either of these efforts could have adverse operational, financial, and reputational effects on our business.

We are currently operating and maintaining multiple billing systems and supporting platforms. We expect to continue to do so until successful conversion of Sprint’s legacy customers to T-Mobile’s existing billing platforms. We may encounter unanticipated difficulties or experience delays in the ongoing integration efforts with respect to billing, causing major system or business disruptions. In addition, we or our supporting vendors may experience errors, cyber-attacks or other operational disruptions that could negatively impact us and over which we may have limited control. Interruptions and/or failure of these billing systems could disrupt our operations and impact our ability to provide or bill for our services, retain customers, attract new customers, or negatively impact overall customer experience. Any occurrence of the foregoing could cause material adverse effects on our operations and financial condition, and/or material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and reputational damage.

The challenges in satisfying the large number of Government Commitments in the required time frames and the significant cumulative cost incurred in tracking, monitoring, and complying with them over multiple years could continue to adversely impact our business, financial condition, and operating results.

In connection with the regulatory proceedings and approvals required to close the Transactions, we agreed to fulfill various Government Commitments. These Government Commitments include, among other things, extensive 5G network build-out commitments, obligations to deliver high-speed wireless services to the vast majority of Americans and marketing our in-home fixed wireless product to households where spectrum capacity is sufficient. Other Government Commitments relate to national security, pricing and availability of rate plans, employment, substantial monetary contributions to support several different organizations, and implementation of diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives. Most Government Commitments have specified time frames for compliance and reporting, and we continue to focus on taking the actions required to fulfill them. Any failure to fulfill our obligations under these Government Commitments in a timely manner could result in substantial fines, penalties, or other legal and administrative actions and/or reputational harm.

We expect to continue incurring significant costs, expenses, and fees to track, monitor, comply with and fulfill our obligations under these Government Commitments over a number of years. In addition, abiding by the Government Commitments may divert our management’s time and energy away from other business operations and could force us to make business decisions we would not otherwise make and forego taking actions that might be beneficial to the Company. The challenges in continuing to satisfy the large number of Government Commitments in the required time frames and the cost incurred in tracking, monitoring, and complying with them could also adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results and hinder our ability to effectively compete.

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Economic, political and market conditions may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our business, financial condition and operating results are sensitive to changes in general economic conditions, including interest rates, consumer credit conditions, consumer debt levels, consumer confidence, unemployment rates, economic growth, energy costs, rates of inflation (or concerns about deflation), supply chain disruptions, impacts of current geopolitical instability caused by the war in Ukraine, and other macro-economic factors.

The wireless industry, broadly, is dependent on population growth, as a result, we expect the wireless industry’s customer growth rate to be moderate in comparison with historical growth rates, leading to ongoing competition for customers. In addition, the Government Commitments place certain limitations on our ability to increase prices, which limits our ability to pass along growing costs to customers. Rising prices for goods, services, and labor due to inflation could adversely impact our margins and/or growth.

Our services and device financing plans are available to a broad customer base, a significant segment of which may be vulnerable to weak economic conditions, particularly our subprime customers. We may have greater difficulty in gaining new customers within this segment, and existing customers may be more likely to terminate service and default on device financing plans due to an inability to pay.

Weak economic and credit conditions may also adversely impact our suppliers, dealers, and wholesale partners or MVNOs, some of which may file for bankruptcy, or may experience cash flow or liquidity problems, or may be unable to obtain or refinance credit such that they may no longer be able to operate. Any of these could adversely impact our ability to distribute, market, or sell our products and services.

Our business may be adversely impacted if we are not able to successfully manage the ongoing commercial and transition services arrangements entered into in connection with the Prepaid Transaction and known or unknown liabilities arising in connection therewith.

In connection with the closing of the Prepaid Transaction, we and DISH entered into certain commercial and transition services arrangements, including a Master Network Services Agreement (the “MNSA”) and a license purchase agreement (the “DISH License Purchase Agreement”). Pursuant to the MNSA, DISH will receive network services from the Company for a period of seven years. As set forth in the MNSA, the Company will provide DISH, among other things, (a) legacy network services for certain Boost Mobile prepaid end users on the Sprint network, (b) T-Mobile network services for certain end users that have been migrated to the T-Mobile network or provisioned on the T-Mobile network by or on behalf of DISH and (c) infrastructure mobile network operator services to assist in the access and integration of the DISH network. Pursuant to the DISH License Purchase Agreement, DISH has agreed to purchase all of Sprint’s 800 MHz spectrum (approximately 13.5 MHz of nationwide spectrum) for a total of approximately $3.6 billion in a transaction to be completed, subject to certain additional closing conditions, following an application for FCC approval to be filed three years following the closing of the Merger; provided, however, that if DISH breaches the DISH License Purchase agreement prior to the closing or fails to deliver the purchase price following the satisfaction or waiver of all closing conditions, DISH’s sole liability will be to pay us a fee of approximately $72 million. In such instance, T-Mobile is required, unless otherwise approved under the Consent Decree, to conduct an auction of all of Sprint’s 800 MHz spectrum under the terms set forth in the Consent Decree, but would not be required to divest such spectrum for an amount less than $3.6 billion. The parties are required to file an application for the transfer by April 1, 2023. The covered spectrum sale must occur within the later of three years after the closing of the Prepaid Transaction and five days after receipt of the approval from the FCC of the application.

Failure to successfully manage these ongoing commercial and transition services arrangements entered into in connection with the Prepaid Transaction and liabilities arising in connection therewith may result in material unanticipated problems, including diversion of management time and energy, significant expenses and liabilities. There may also be other potential adverse consequences and unforeseen increased expenses, or liabilities associated with the Prepaid Transaction, the occurrence of which could materially impact our business, financial condition, liquidity, and operating results. In addition, there may be an increase in competition from DISH and other third parties that DISH may enter into commercial agreements with, who are significantly larger and with greater resources and scale advantages as compared to us. Such increased competition may result in our loss of customers and other business relationships.

Any acquisition, divestiture, investment, or merger may subject us to significant risks, any of which may harm our business.

We may pursue acquisitions of, investments in or mergers with other companies, or the acquisition of technologies, services, products or other assets, that we believe would complement or expand our business. We may also elect to divest some of our
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assets to third parties. Some of these potential transactions could be significant relative to the size of our business and operations. Any such transaction would involve a number of risks and could present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including:

diversion of management attention from running our existing business;
increased costs to integrate the networks, spectrum, technology, personnel, customer base and business practices of the company involved in any such transaction with our business;
difficulties in effectively integrating the financial and operational systems of the business involved in any such transaction into (or supplanting such systems with) our financial and operational reporting infrastructure and internal control framework in an effective and timely manner;
potential exposure to material liabilities not discovered in the due diligence process or as a result of any litigation arising in connection with any such transaction;
significant transaction-related expenses in connection with any such transaction, whether consummated or not;
risks related to our ability to obtain any required regulatory approvals necessary to consummate any such transaction; and
any business, technology, service, or product involved in any such transaction may significantly under-perform relative to our expectations, and we may not achieve the benefits we expect from the transaction, which could, among other things, also result in a write-down of goodwill and other intangible assets associated with such transaction.

For any or all of these reasons, as well as unknown risks, acquisitions, divestitures, investments, or mergers may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We rely on third parties to provide products and services for the operation of our business, and the failure or inability of such parties to provide these products or services could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We have a diverse set of suppliers to help us develop, maintain, and troubleshoot products and services such as wireless and wireline network components, software development services, and billing and customer service support. However, in certain areas such as, billing services, voice, and data communications transport services, wireless or wireline network infrastructure equipment, handsets, other devices, back-office processes and payment processing, there are a limited number of suppliers who can provide adequate support for us, which decreases our flexibility to switch to alternative third parties. Unexpected termination of our arrangement with any of these suppliers or difficulties in renewing our commercial arrangements with them could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations.

Our suppliers are also subject to their own risks, including, but not limited to, economic, financial and credit conditions, labor force disruptions, geopolitical tensions, disruptions in global supply chain and the risks of natural catastrophic events such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and public health crises such as the Pandemic which may result in performance below the levels required by their contracts. Our business could be severely disrupted if critical suppliers or service providers fail to comply with their contracts or if we experience delays or service degradation during any transition to a new outsourcing provider or other supplier or if we are required to replace the supplied products or services with those from another source, especially if the replacement becomes necessary on short notice. Any such disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Further, some of our suppliers may provide services from outside of the United States, which carries additional regulatory and legal obligations. We rely on suppliers to provide us with contractual assurances and to disclose accurate information regarding risks associated with their provision of products or services in accordance with our policies and standards, including our Supplier Code of Conduct and our third-party risk management practices. The failure of our suppliers to comply with our expectations and policies could expose us to additional legal and litigation risks and lead to unexpected contract terminations.

We may not fully realize the synergy benefits from the Transactions in the expected time frame.

Our ability to realize the expected benefits from the Merger will depend on our ability to integrate the two businesses in a manner that facilitates growth opportunities and achieves the projected cost savings. Although we have completed a number of integration activities, we continue the process and may incur additional expenses as a result of challenges in combining operations such as:

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difficulties in integrating operations and systems, including intellectual property and communications systems, administrative and information technology infrastructure, and supplier and vendor arrangements;
difficulties in operating and maintaining multiple billing and related support systems until conversion is completed;
difficulties in managing the expanded operations of a significantly larger and more complex company;
compliance with Government Commitments relating to national security; and
other potential adverse consequences and unforeseen increased expenses or liabilities associated with the Transactions.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Our substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect our business flexibility, ability to service our debt, and increase our borrowing costs.

We have, and we expect that we will continue to have, a substantial amount of debt. Our substantial level of indebtedness could have the effect of, among other things, reducing our flexibility in responding to changing business, economic, market and industry conditions and increasing the amount of cash required to service our debt. In addition, this level of indebtedness may also reduce funds available for capital expenditures, any board-approved share repurchases and other activities. Those impacts may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to other companies with lower debt levels. Further, we may need to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, if any, which could increase the risks associated with our capital structure.

Our ability to service our substantial debt obligations will depend on future performance, which will be affected by business, economic, market and industry conditions and other factors, including our ability to achieve the expected benefits of the Transactions. There is no guarantee that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations when due. If we are unable to meet such obligations or fail to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in the agreements governing such debt obligations, we may be required to refinance all or part of our debt, sell important strategic assets at unfavorable prices or make additional borrowings. We may not be able to, at any given time, refinance our debt, sell assets, or make additional borrowings on commercially reasonable terms or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Changes in credit market conditions could adversely affect our ability to raise debt favorably.

Instability in the global financial markets, inflation, policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, including changes in monetary policy and interest rates, and other general economic conditions could lead to volatility in the credit and equity markets. This volatility could limit our access to the capital markets, leading to higher borrowing costs or, in some cases, the inability to obtain financing on terms that are acceptable to us or at all.

In addition, any hedging agreements we may enter into to limit our exposure to interest rate increases or foreign currency fluctuations may not offer complete protection from these risks or may be unsuccessful, and consequently may effectively increase the interest rate we pay on our debt or the exchange rate with respect to any debt we may incur in a foreign currency, and any portion not subject to such hedging agreements would have full exposure to interest rate increases or foreign currency fluctuations, as applicable. If any financial institutions that are parties to our hedging agreements were to default on their payment obligations to us, declare bankruptcy or become insolvent, we would be unhedged against the underlying exposures. Any posting of collateral by us under our hedging agreements and the modification or termination of any of our hedging agreements could negatively impact our liquidity or other financial metrics. Any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

The agreements governing our indebtedness and other financings include restrictive covenants that limit our operating
flexibility.

The agreements governing our indebtedness and other financings impose operating and financial restrictions. These restrictions, subject in certain cases to customary baskets, exceptions and maintenance and incurrence-based financial tests, together with our debt service obligations, may limit our ability to engage in transactions and pursue strategic business opportunities. These restrictions could limit our ability to obtain debt financing, refinance or pay principal on our outstanding indebtedness, complete acquisitions for cash or indebtedness or react to business, economic, market and industry conditions and other changes in our operating environment or the economy. Any future indebtedness that we incur may contain similar or more restrictive covenants. Any failure to comply with the restrictions of our debt agreements may result in an event of default under these agreements, which in turn may result in defaults or acceleration of obligations under these and other agreements, giving our lenders the right to terminate the commitments they had made or the right to require us to repay all amounts then
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outstanding plus any interest, fees, penalties, or premiums. An event of default may also compel us to sell certain assets securing indebtedness under certain of these agreements.

Credit rating downgrades and/or inability to access debt markets could adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition, and operating results.

Credit ratings impact the cost and availability of future borrowings and, as a result, cost of capital. Our current ratings reflect each rating agency’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance, and ability to meet our debt obligations. Our capital structure and business model are reliant on continued access to debt markets. Each rating agency reviews our ratings periodically, and there can be no assurance that such ratings will be maintained in the future. A downgrade in our corporate rating and/or our issued debt ratings could impact our ability to access debt markets and adversely affect our business, cash flows, financial condition, and operating results.

Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters

Failure to maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could result in a loss of investor confidence regarding our financial statements and reputational damage.

Under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we, along with our independent registered public accounting firm, are required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. There can be no assurance that remediation of any material weaknesses that may be identified would be completed in a timely manner or that the remedial measures will prevent other control deficiencies or material weaknesses. If we are unable to remediate material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting, then our ability to analyze, record and report financial information free of material misstatements, to prepare financial statements within the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the SEC and otherwise to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act would be negatively impacted. As a result, we may experience negative impacts to our business financial condition or operating results, which would restrict our ability to access the capital markets, require the expenditure of significant resources to correct the weaknesses or deficiencies, subject us to fines, penalties, investigations, or judgments, harm our reputation, or otherwise cause a decline in trading price of our stock and investor confidence.

Changes in regulations or in the regulatory framework under which we operate could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We are subject to regulatory oversight by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as judicial review and actions, on issues related to the wireless industry that include, but are not limited to, roaming, interconnection, spectrum allocation and licensing, facilities siting, pole attachments, intercarrier compensation, Universal Service Fund, 911 services, consumer protection, consumer privacy, and cybersecurity. We are also subject to regulations in connection with other aspects of our business, including device financing and insurance activities.

The FCC regulates the licensing, construction, modification, operation, ownership, sale, and interconnection of wireless communications systems, as do some state and local regulatory agencies. In particular, the FCC imposes significant regulation on licensees of wireless spectrum with respect to how radio spectrum is used by licensees, the nature of the services that licensees may offer and how the services may be offered, and the resolution of issues of interference between operators in the same or adjacent spectrum bands. Changes necessary to resolve interference issues or concerns may have a significant impact on our ability to fully utilize our spectrum. As an example, we recently won spectrum licenses in the so-called “C band” to support our continued rollout of 5G technology and services. There have been concerns raised that use of this spectrum by wireless carriers for 5G deployment could interfere with the altimeters in certain aircraft, and there is an ongoing discussion between the industry, the FCC, and the FAA as to whether and how 5G operations should be limited around airports. Additionally, the FTC and other federal and state agencies have asserted that they have jurisdiction over some consumer protection matters, and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices with respect to the provision of wireless products and services.

We cannot assure that the FCC or any other federal, state, or local agencies will not adopt regulations, implement new programs, or take enforcement or other actions that would adversely affect our business, impose new costs, or require changes in current or planned operations, including timing of the shutdown of legacy technologies. For example, in response to the Pandemic, the California Public Utilities Commission adopted a resolution providing a moratorium on customer disconnects and late fees for certain California customers facing financial hardship. Additionally, in 2015 and 2016, the FCC established net neutrality and privacy regimes that applied to our operations. Both sets of rules potentially subjected some of our initiatives and practices to more burdensome requirements and heightened scrutiny by federal and state regulators, the public, edge providers,
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and private litigants regarding whether such initiatives or practices are compliant. While the FCC rules were largely rolled back in December 2017, the current FCC updated transparency obligations to require nutrition-style broadband label disclosures effective potentially in 2023 that could prompt regulatory inquiries, and the FCC could decide to establish new net neutrality requirements. In addition, some states and other jurisdictions have enacted laws in these areas (including, for example, California and other states’ net neutrality laws, the CCPA and CPRA as discussed below) and others are considering enacting similar laws. It also is uncertain what rules may be promulgated under the current administration (e.g., the FTC has discussed promulgating privacy rules), perpetuating the risk and uncertainty regarding the regulatory environment and compliance around these issues.

In addition, states are increasingly focused on the quality of service and support that wireless communications service providers provide to their customers and several states have proposed or enacted new and potentially burdensome regulations in this area. We also face potential investigations by, and inquiries from or actions by state public utility commissions. We also cannot assure that Congress will not amend the Communications Act, from which the FCC obtains its authority, and which serves to limit state authority, or enact other legislation in a manner that could be adverse to our business.

Failure to comply with applicable regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results. We could be subject to fines, forfeitures, and other penalties (including, in extreme cases, revocation of our spectrum licenses) for failure to comply with the FCC or other governmental regulations, even if any such noncompliance was unintentional. The loss of any licenses, or any related fines or forfeitures, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Laws and regulations relating to the handling of privacy and data protection may result in increased costs, legal claims, fines against us, or reputational damage.

In January 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”) became effective, creating new data privacy rights for California residents and new compliance obligations for us and industry in general, in addition to private rights of action for certain types of data breaches. Moreover, new privacy laws are being developed and/or enacted in many jurisdictions, for example, in Colorado, Utah, Connecticut, Virginia, and in California, where the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) (which modifies the CCPA) recently became effective. All of these new privacy laws and others that we expect to be developed and enacted going forward will impose additional data protection obligations and potential liability on companies such as ours doing business in those states.

We have incurred and will continue to incur significant implementation costs to ensure compliance with the CCPA, the CPRA, new privacy laws in other states, and their related regulations, including managing the complexity of laws that vary from state to state. Both federal and state governments are considering additional privacy laws and regulations which, if passed, could further impact our business, strategies, offerings, and initiatives and cause us to incur further costs. Any actual or perceived failure to comply with the CCPA, CPRA, other data privacy laws or regulations, or related contractual or other obligations, or any perceived privacy rights violation, could lead to investigations, claims, and proceedings by governmental entities and private parties, damages for contract breaches, and other significant costs, penalties, and other liabilities, as well as harm to our reputation and market position.

Unfavorable outcomes of legal proceedings may adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

We and our affiliates are involved in various disputes, governmental and/or regulatory inspections, investigations and proceedings, mass arbitrations and litigation matters. Such legal proceedings can be complex, costly, and highly disruptive to our business operations by diverting the attention and energy of management and other key personnel.

In connection with the Transactions, we became subject to a number of legal proceedings, including a putative shareholder class action and derivative lawsuit and a putative antitrust class action. For more information, see “– Contingencies and Litigation – Litigation and Regulatory Matters” in Note 19 – Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. It is possible that stockholders of T-Mobile and/or Sprint may file additional putative class action lawsuits or shareholder derivative actions against the Company and the legacy T-Mobile board of directors and/or the legacy Sprint board of directors. Among other remedies, these stockholders could seek damages. The outcome of any litigation is uncertain and any such potential lawsuits could result in substantial costs and may be costly and distracting to management.

Additionally, on April 1, 2020, in connection with the closing of the Merger, we assumed the contingencies and litigation matters of Sprint. Those matters include a wide variety of disputes, claims, government agency investigations and enforcement
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actions and other proceedings. Unfavorable resolution of these matters could require making additional reimbursements and paying additional fines and penalties.

On February 28, 2020, we received a Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture and Admonishment from the FCC, which proposed a penalty against us for allegedly violating Section 222 of the Communications Act and the FCC’s regulations governing the privacy of customer information. We recorded an accrual for an estimated payment amount as of March 31, 2020, which is included in Accounts payable and accrued liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.

As a result of the August 2021 cyberattack, we are subject to numerous lawsuits, including consolidated class action lawsuits seeking unspecified monetary damages, mass consumer arbitrations, a shareholder derivative lawsuit and inquiries by various government agencies, law enforcement and other governmental authorities, and we may be subject to further regulatory inquiries and private litigation. We are cooperating fully with regulators and vigorously defending against the class actions and other lawsuits. On July 22, 2022, we entered into an agreement to settle the consolidated class action lawsuit. On July 26, 2022, we received preliminary approval of the proposed settlement, which remains subject to final court approval. The court conducted a final approval hearing on January 20, 2023, and we await a ruling from the court. If approved by the court, under the terms of the proposed settlement, we would pay an aggregate of $350 million to fund claims submitted by class members, the legal fees of plaintiffs’ counsel and the costs of administering the settlement. We would also commit to an aggregate incremental spend of $150 million for data security and related technology in 2022 and 2023. In connection with the proposed class action settlement and other settlements of separate consumer claims that have been previously completed or are currently pending, we recorded a total pre-tax charge of approximately $400 million during the three months ended June 30, 2022. In light of the inherent uncertainties involved in such matters and based on the information currently available to us, we believe it is reasonably possible that we could incur additional losses associated with these proceedings and inquiries, and we will continue to evaluate information as it becomes known and will record an estimate for losses at the time or times when it is both probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable. In addition, in connection with the January 2023 cyberattack, we have received notices of consumer class actions and regulatory inquires, to which we will respond to in due course. Ongoing legal and other costs related to these proceedings and inquiries, as well as any potential future proceedings and inquiries related to the August 2021 cyberattack and the January 2023 cyberattack, may be substantial, and losses associated with any adverse judgments, settlements, penalties or other resolutions of such proceedings and inquiries could be significant and have a material adverse impact on our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

We, along with equipment manufacturers and other carriers, are subject to current and potential future lawsuits alleging adverse health effects arising from the use of wireless handsets or from wireless transmission equipment such as cell towers. In addition, the FCC has from time to time gathered data regarding wireless device emissions, and its assessment of the risks associated with using wireless devices may evolve based on its findings. Any of these allegations or changes in risk assessments could result in customers purchasing fewer devices and wireless services, could result in significant legal and regulatory liability, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

The assessment of the outcome of legal proceedings, including our potential liability, if any, is a highly subjective process that requires judgments about future events that are not within our control. The amounts ultimately received or paid upon settlement or pursuant to final judgment, order or decree may differ materially from amounts accrued in our financial statements. In addition, litigation or similar proceedings could impose restraints on our current or future manner of doing business. Such potential outcomes including judgments, awards, settlements or orders could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, cash flows and operating results.

We offer regulated financial services products. These products expose us to a wide variety of state and federal regulations.

The financing of devices, such as through our EIP, JUMP! On Demand or other leasing programs, such as those acquired in the Merger, has expanded our regulatory compliance obligations. Failure to remain compliant with applicable regulations may increase our risk exposure in the following areas:

consumer complaints and potential examinations or enforcement actions by federal and state regulatory agencies, including, but not limited to, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, state attorneys general, the FCC and the FTC; and
regulatory fines, penalties, enforcement actions, civil litigation, and/or class action lawsuits.

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Failure to comply with applicable regulations and the realization of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our business may be impacted by new or amended tax laws or regulations or administrative interpretations and judicial decisions affecting the scope or application of tax laws or regulations.

In connection with the products and services we sell, we calculate, collect, and remit various federal, state, and local taxes, fees and regulatory charges (“tax” or “taxes”) to numerous federal, state and local governmental authorities, including federal and state USF contributions and common carrier regulatory charges and public safety fees. As many of our service plans offer taxes and fees inclusive, our business results could be adversely impacted by increases in taxes and fees. In addition, we incur and pay state and local transaction taxes and fees on purchases of goods and services used in our business.

Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the laws are issued or applied. In many cases, the application of existing, newly enacted or amended tax laws may be uncertain and subject to different interpretations, especially when evaluated against new technologies and telecommunications services, such as broadband internet access and cloud-related services and in the context of our merger with Sprint. Legislative changes, administrative interpretations and judicial decisions affecting the scope or application of tax laws could also impact revenue reported and taxes due on tax inclusive plans. Additionally, failure to comply with any of the tax laws could subject us to additional taxes, fines, penalties, or other adverse actions.

In the event that federal, state, and/or local municipalities were to significantly increase taxes and regulatory or public safety charges on our network, operations, or services, or seek to impose new taxes or charges, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our wireless licenses are subject to renewal and may be revoked in the event that we violate applicable laws.

Our existing wireless licenses are subject to renewal upon the expiration of the period for which they are granted. Our licenses have been granted with an expectation of renewal and the FCC has approved our license renewal applications. However, the Communications Act provides that licenses may be revoked for cause and license renewal applications denied if the FCC determines that a renewal would not serve the public interest. If we fail to timely file to renew any wireless license or fail to meet any regulatory requirements for renewal, including construction and substantial service requirements, we could be denied a license renewal. Many of our wireless licenses are subject to interim or final construction requirements and there is no guarantee that the FCC will find our construction, or the construction of prior licensees, sufficient to meet the build-out or renewal requirements. Accordingly, we cannot assure that the FCC will renew our wireless licenses upon their expiration. If any of our wireless licenses were to be revoked or not renewed upon expiration, we would not be permitted to provide services under that license, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our Certificate of Incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain actions and proceedings, which could limit the ability of our stockholders to obtain a judicial forum of their choice for disputes with the Company or its directors, officers or employees.

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or employee of the Company to the Company or its stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, the Certificate of Incorporation or the Company's bylaws or (iv) any other action asserting a claim arising under, in connection with, and governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This choice of forum provision does not waive our compliance with our obligations under the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Moreover, the provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or by the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

This choice of forum provision may increase costs to bring a claim, discourage claims or limit a stockholder's ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder finds favorable for disputes with the Company or its directors, officers or employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against the Company and its directors, officers and employees, even though an action, if successful, might benefit our stockholders. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could increase our costs of litigation and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
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DT controls a majority of the voting power of our common stock and the T-Mobile trademarks we utilize in our business, and may have interests that differ from the interests of our other stockholders.

DT is a party to the SoftBank Proxy Agreement (as defined in Note 14 – SoftBank Equity Transaction to the Consolidated Financial Statements). In addition, on June 22, 2020, DT, Claure Mobile LLC (“CM LLC”), and Marcelo Claure entered into a Proxy, Lock-up and ROFR Agreement (the “Claure Proxy Agreement” and together with the SoftBank Proxy Agreement, the “Proxy Agreements”). Pursuant to the Proxy Agreements, at any meeting of our stockholders, the shares of our common stock beneficially owned by SoftBank or CM LLC will be voted in the manner as directed by DT. In addition, DT holds direct and indirect call options that give DT the right to acquire up to approximately 35 million shares of our common stock held by SoftBank.

Accordingly, DT controls a majority of the voting power of our common stock and therefore we are a “controlled company,” as defined in the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (“NASDAQ”) listing rules, and we are not subject to NASDAQ requirements that would otherwise require us to have a majority of independent directors, a nominating committee composed solely of independent directors or a compensation committee composed solely of independent directors. Accordingly, our stockholders will not be afforded the same protections as stockholders of other NASDAQ-listed companies generally receive with respect to corporate governance for so long as we rely on these exemptions from the corporate governance requirements.

In addition, pursuant to our Certificate of Incorporation and the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders’ Agreement, as long as DT beneficially owns 30% or more of our outstanding common stock, we are restricted from taking certain actions without DT’s prior written consent, including (i) incurring indebtedness above certain levels based on a specified debt to cash flow ratio, (ii) taking any action that would cause a default under any instrument evidencing indebtedness involving DT or its affiliates, (iii) acquiring or disposing of assets or entering into mergers or similar acquisitions in excess of $1.0 billion, (iv) changing the size of our board of directors, (v) subject to certain exceptions, issuing equity of 10% or more of the then-outstanding shares of our common stock, or issuing equity to redeem debt held by DT, (vi) repurchasing or redeeming equity securities or making any extraordinary or in-kind dividend other than on a pro rata basis, or (vii) making certain changes involving our CEO. We are also restricted from amending our Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws in any manner that could adversely affect DT’s rights under the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders’ Agreement for as long as DT beneficially owns 5% or more of our outstanding common stock. These restrictions could prevent us from taking actions that our board of directors might otherwise determine are in the best interests of the Company and our stockholders, or that may be in the best interests of our other stockholders.

DT effectively has control over all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election or removal of directors, changes to our Certificate of Incorporation, a sale or merger of our Company and other transactions requiring stockholder approval under Delaware law. DT’s controlling interest may have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discouraging a third party from seeking to acquire, the Company and DT, as the controlling stockholder, may have strategic, financial, or other interests different from our other stockholders, including as the holder of a portion of our debt and as the counterparty in a number of commercial arrangements, and may make decisions adverse to the interests of our other stockholders.

In addition, we license certain trademarks from DT, including the right to use the trademark “T-Mobile” as a name for the Company and our flagship brand under a trademark license agreement, as amended, with DT. As described in more detail in our Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 27, 2022 under the heading “Transactions with Related Persons and Approval,” we are obligated to pay DT a royalty in an amount equal to 0.25% (the “royalty rate”) of the net revenue (as defined in the trademark license) generated by products and services sold by the Company under the licensed trademarks subject to a cap of $80 million per calendar year through December 31, 2028. We and DT are obligated to negotiate a new trademark license when (i) DT has 50% or less of the voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company or (ii) any third party owns or controls, directly or indirectly, 50% or more of the voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company, or otherwise has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the Company. If we and DT fail to agree on a new trademark license, either we or DT may terminate the trademark license and such termination shall be effective, in the case of clause (i) above, on the third anniversary after a notice of termination and, in the case of clause (ii) above, on the second anniversary after a notice of termination. A further increase in the royalty rate or termination of the trademark license could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

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Future sales of our common stock by DT and SoftBank and foreign ownership limitations by the FCC could have a negative impact on our stock price and decrease the value of our stock.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of shares of our common stock by DT or SoftBank will have on the prevailing trading price of our common stock. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock could cause our stock price to decline.

We, DT and SoftBank are parties to the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders’ Agreement pursuant to which DT is free to transfer its shares in public sales without notice, as long as such transactions would not result in a third party owning more than 30% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. If a transfer were to exceed the 30% threshold, it would be prohibited unless the transfer were approved by our board of directors, or the transferee were to make a binding offer to purchase all of the other outstanding shares on the same price and terms. The Second Amended and Restated Stockholders’ Agreement does not otherwise impose any other restrictions on the sales of common stock by DT or SoftBank. Moreover, the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders’ Agreement generally requires us to cooperate with DT to facilitate the resale of our common stock or debt securities held by DT under shelf registration statements we have filed. The sale of shares of our common stock by DT or SoftBank (other than in transactions involving the purchase of all of our outstanding shares) could significantly increase the number of shares available in the market, which could cause a decrease in our stock price. In addition, even if DT or SoftBank does not sell a large number of their shares into the market, their rights to transfer a large number of shares into the market could depress our stock price.

Furthermore, under existing law, no more than 20% of an FCC licensee’s capital stock may be directly owned, or no more than 25% indirectly owned, or voted by non-U.S. citizens or their representatives, by a foreign government or its representatives or by a foreign corporation. If an FCC licensee is controlled by another entity, up to 25% of that entity’s capital stock may be owned or voted by non-U.S. citizens or their representatives, by a foreign government or its representatives or by a foreign corporation. Foreign ownership above the 25% holding company level may be allowed if the FCC finds such higher levels consistent with the public interest. The FCC has ruled that higher levels of foreign ownership, even up to 100%, are presumptively consistent with the public interest with respect to investors from certain nations. If our foreign ownership by previously unapproved foreign parties were to exceed the permitted level without further FCC authorization, the FCC could subject us to a range of penalties, including an order for us to divest the foreign ownership in part, fines, license revocation or denials of license renewals. If ownership of our common stock by an unapproved foreign entity were to become subject to such limitations, or if any ownership of our common stock violates any other rule or regulation of the FCC applicable to us, our Certificate of Incorporation provides for certain redemption provisions at a pre-determined price which may be less than fair market value. These limitations and our Certificate of Incorporation may limit our ability to attract additional equity financing outside the United States and decrease the value of our common stock.

We cannot guarantee that our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program will be fully consummated or that our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program will enhance long-term stockholder value.

Our Board of Directors has authorized our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program for up to $14.0 billion of the Company’s common stock through September 30, 2023, with $3.0 billion spent by the Company on share repurchases as of December 31, 2022, and an additional $2.1 billion spent by the Company from January 1, 2023 through February 10, 2023. Any additional share repurchases will depend upon, among other factors, our cash balances and potential future capital requirements, our results of operations and financial condition, our ability to access capital markets, our priorities for the use of cash for other purposes, the price of our common stock, and other factors that we may deem relevant.

The existence of the 2022 Stock Repurchase Program could cause our stock price, in certain cases, to be higher or lower than it otherwise would be and could potentially reduce the market liquidity or have other unintended consequences for our stock. We can provide no assurance that we will repurchase shares of our common stock at favorable prices, if at all. Although the program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, there is no assurance it will do so.

In addition, the 2022 Stock Repurchase Program does not obligate the Company to acquire any particular amount of common stock. The 2022 Stock Repurchase Program may be suspended or discontinued, or the amount to be spent by the Company to repurchase shares could be reduced, at any time at the Company’s discretion. Any decision to reduce or discontinue repurchasing shares of our common stock pursuant to our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program could cause the market price for our common stock to decline and may negatively impact our reputation and investor confidence in us.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our properties are best described on a collective basis, as no individual property is material. Our property and equipment consists of the following:
(percent of gross property and equipment)
December 31, 2022
December 31, 2021
Wireless communication systems68 %66 %
Land, buildings and building equipment%%
Data processing equipment and other27 %29 %
Total100 %100 %

Wireless communication systems primarily consist of assets used to operate our wireless network and information technology data centers, including switching equipment, radio frequency equipment, tower assets, High Speed Internet routers, construction in progress and leasehold improvements related to the wireless network and asset retirement costs.

Land, buildings and building equipment primarily consist of land and land improvements, central office buildings or any other buildings that house network equipment, buildings used for administrative and other purposes, related construction in progress and certain network service equipment.

Data processing equipment and other primarily consists of data processing equipment, office equipment, capitalized software, leased wireless devices, construction in progress and leasehold improvements.

We also lease distributed antenna systems and small cell sites, as well as properties throughout the United States that contain data and switching centers, customer call centers, retail locations, warehouses and administrative spaces.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

For more information regarding the legal proceedings in which we are involved, see Note 19 – Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II.

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “TMUS.” We are included within the S&P 500 in the Wireless Telecommunication Services GICS (Global Industry Classification Standard) Sub-Industry index. As of January 31, 2023, there were 15,719 registered stockholders of record of our common stock, but we estimate the total number of stockholders to be much higher as a number of our shares are held by brokers or dealers for their customers in street name.

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not intend to declare or pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to use future earnings, if any, to invest in our business and for general corporate purposes, including the continued build-out of our 5G network, expansion of our business, the integration of T-Mobile’s and Sprint’s businesses, and share repurchases as appropriate. Therefore, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future; capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of potential gain.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The table below provides information regarding our share repurchases during the three months ended December 31, 2022:
(in millions, except share and per share amounts)Total Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that may yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
October 1, 2022 - October 31, 20228,357,758 $138.04 8,357,758 $12,178 
November 1, 2022 - November 30, 20223,307,350 148.26 3,307,350 11,687 
December 1, 2022 - December 31, 20224,803,986 143.09 4,803,986 11,000 
Total16,469,094 16,469,094 
(1)    On September 8, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program for up to $14.0 billion of our common stock through September 30, 2023, with up to $3.0 billion by December 31, 2022. The amounts presented represent the remaining shares authorized for purchase under the 2022 Stock Repurchase Program as of the end of the period.

See Note 15 - Repurchases of Common Stock of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information about our 2022 Stock Repurchase Program.
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Performance Graph

The graph below compares the five-year cumulative total returns of T-Mobile, the S&P 500 index, the NASDAQ Composite index and the Dow Jones US Mobile Telecommunications TSM index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment, with the reinvestment of all dividends, from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2022.
tmus-20221231_g2.jpg
The five-year cumulative total returns of T-Mobile, the S&P 500 index, the NASDAQ Composite index and the Dow Jones US Mobile Telecommunications TSM index, as illustrated in the graph above, are as follows:
At December 31,
(in dollars)201720182019202020212022
T-Mobile US, Inc.$100.00 $100.16 $123.48 $212.33 $182.62 $220.44 
S&P 500100.00 95.62 125.72 148.85 191.58 156.89 
NASDAQ Composite100.00 97.16 132.81 192.47 235.15 158.65 
Dow Jones US Mobile Telecommunications TSM100.00 119.01 134.96 147.15 134.45 121.36 

The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview

The objectives of our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) are to provide users of our consolidated financial statements with the following:

A narrative explanation from the perspective of management of our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity and certain other factors that may affect future results;
Context to the consolidated financial statements; and
Information that allows assessment of the likelihood that past performance is indicative of future performance.

Our MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read together with, our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Except as expressly stated, the financial condition and results of operations discussed throughout our MD&A are those of T-Mobile US, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Sprint Merger, Network Integration and Decommissioning Activities

Transaction Overview

On April 1, 2020, we completed the Merger with Sprint, a communications company offering a comprehensive range of wireless and wireline communications products and services. As a result, Sprint and its subsidiaries became wholly owned consolidated subsidiaries of T-Mobile.

The Merger has altered the size and scope of our operations, impacting our assets, liabilities, obligations, capital requirements and performance measures. As a combined company, we have been able to enhance the breadth and depth of our nationwide 5G network, accelerate innovation, increase competition in the U.S. wireless and broadband industries and achieve significant synergies and cost reductions by eliminating redundancies within the combined network as well as other business processes and operations.

For more information regarding our Business Combination Agreement, see Note 2 – Business Combinations of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Merger-Related Costs

Merger-related costs associated with the Merger and acquisitions of affiliates generally include:

Integration costs to achieve efficiencies in network, retail, information technology and back office operations, migrate customers to the T-Mobile network and billing systems and the impact of legal matters assumed as part of the Merger;
Restructuring costs, including severance, store rationalization and network decommissioning; and
Transaction costs, including legal and professional services related to the completion of the transactions.

Restructuring costs are disclosed in Note 20 – Restructuring Costs of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Merger-related costs have been excluded from our calculations of Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA, which are non-GAAP financial measures, as we do not consider these costs to be reflective of our ongoing operating performance. See “Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA” in the “Performance Measures” section of this MD&A. Net cash payments for Merger-related costs, including payments related to our restructuring plan, are included in Net cash provided by operating activities on our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

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Merger-related costs are presented below:
(in millions)Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
202220212020$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Merger-related costs
Cost of services, exclusive of depreciation and amortization$2,670 $1,015 $646 $1,655 163 %$369 57 %
Cost of equipment sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization1,524 1,018 506 50 %1,012 NM
Selling, general and administrative775 1,074 1,263 (299)(28)%(189)(15)%
Total Merger-related costs$4,969 $3,107 $1,915 $1,862 60 %$1,192 62 %
Net cash payments for Merger-related costs$3,364 $2,170 $1,493 $1,194 55 %$677 45 %
NM - Not Meaningful

We expect to incur substantially all of the remaining projected Merger-related costs of approximately $1.0 billion, excluding capital expenditures, by the end of 2023, with the cash expenditure for the Merger-related costs extending beyond 2023.

We are evaluating additional restructuring initiatives which are dependent on consultations and negotiation with certain counterparties and the expected impact on our business operations, which could affect the amount or timing of the restructuring costs and related payments. We expect our principal sources of funding to be sufficient to meet our liquidity requirements and anticipated payments associated with the restructuring initiatives.

Network Integration

As of December 31, 2022, we have decommissioned substantially all Sprint macro sites targeted for shut down. Our integration and decommissioning initiatives also included the acceleration or termination of certain of our operating and financing leases for cell sites, switch sites and network equipment. To achieve Merger synergies in network costs, we continue to perform rationalization activities to identify duplicative networks, backhaul services and other agreements, in addition to decommissioning certain small cell sites and distributed antenna systems.

To allow for the realization of these synergies associated with network integration, we retired certain legacy networks, including the legacy Sprint CDMA network in the second quarter and the legacy Sprint LTE network in the third quarter of 2022. Customers impacted by the decommissioning of these networks have been excluded from our customer base and postpaid account base. See the “Performance Measures” section of this MD&A for more details.

Restructuring

Upon the close of the Merger, we began implementing restructuring initiatives to realize cost efficiencies from the Merger. The major activities associated with the restructuring initiatives to date include:

Contract termination costs associated with rationalization of retail stores, distribution channels, duplicative network and backhaul services and other agreements;
Severance costs associated with the reduction of redundant processes and functions; and
The decommissioning of certain small cell sites and distributed antenna systems to achieve Merger synergies in network costs.

For more information regarding our restructuring activities, see Note 20 – Restructuring Costs of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Anticipated Merger Synergies

As a result of our ongoing restructuring and integration activities, we expect to realize Merger synergies by eliminating redundancies within our combined network (see “Network Integration” above) as well as other business processes and operations (see “Restructuring” above). For full-year 2023, we expect Merger synergies from Selling, general and administrative expense reductions of $2.5 billion to $2.7 billion, Cost of service expense reductions of $3.1 billion to $3.2 billion and avoided network expenses of $1.6 billion.

Wireline

Previously, the operation of the legacy Sprint CDMA and LTE wireless networks was supported by the legacy Sprint Wireline network. During the second quarter of 2022, we retired the legacy Sprint CDMA network and began the orderly shut-down of the LTE network, which was completed during the third quarter. As a result of these actions during the second quarter of 2022, we determined that the retirement of the legacy Sprint CDMA and LTE wireless networks triggered the need to assess the Wireline long-lived assets for impairment, as these assets no longer support our wireless network and the associated customers and cash flows in a significant manner. The results of this assessment indicated that certain Wireline long-lived assets were impaired, and as a result, we recorded non-cash impairment expense of $477 million related to Wireline Property and equipment, Operating lease right-of-use assets and Other intangible assets for the year ended December 31, 2022, all of which relates to the impairment recognized during the three months ended June 30, 2022. We continue to provide Wireline services to existing Wireline customers as of December 31, 2022.

For more information regarding this non-cash impairment, see Note 16 – Wireline of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

On September 6, 2022, we entered into the Wireline Sale Agreement to sell the Wireline Business for a total purchase price of $1. In addition, at the consummation of the Wireline Transaction, we will enter into an agreement for IP transit services for $700 million. Subject to the satisfaction or waiver of certain conditions and the other terms and conditions of the Wireline Sale Agreement, the Wireline Transaction is expected to close mid-year 2023. As a result of the Wireline Sale Agreement and related anticipated Wireline Transaction, we concluded that the Wireline Business met the held for sale criteria upon entering into the Wireline Sale Agreement. As such, the assets and liabilities of the Wireline Business disposal group are classified as held for sale and presented within Other current assets and Other current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2022. In connection with the expected sale of the Wireline Business and classification of related assets and liabilities as held for sale, we recognized a pre-tax loss of $1.1 billion during the year ended December 31, 2022, which is included within Loss on disposal group held for sale on our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The fair value of the Wireline Business disposal group, less costs to sell, will be reassessed during each subsequent reporting period it remains classified as held for sale, and any remeasurement to the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell will be reported as an adjustment to the Loss on disposal group held for sale.

For more information regarding the Wireline Sale Agreement, see Note 16 – Wireline of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Recent Cyberattacks

In August 2021, we were subject to a criminal cyberattack involving unauthorized access to T-Mobile’s systems. As a result of the attack, we are subject to numerous arbitration demands and lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, and regulatory inquiries as described in Note 19 – Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In connection with the proposed class action settlement and the separate settlements reached with a number of consumers, we recorded a total pre-tax charge of approximately $400 million during the three months ended June 30, 2022. We expect to continue to incur additional expenses in future periods, including costs to remediate the attack, resolve inquiries by various government authorities, provide additional customer support and enhance customer protection, only some of which may be covered and reimbursable by insurance. In addition to the committed aggregate incremental spend of $150 million for data security and related technology in 2022 and 2023 under the proposed settlement agreement, we intend to allocate substantial additional resources towards cybersecurity initiatives over the next several years.

During the year ended December 31, 2022, we recognized $100 million in reimbursements from insurance carriers for costs incurred related to the August 2021 cyberattack. We are pursuing additional reimbursements from insurance carriers for costs incurred related to the August 2021 cyberattack.

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In January 2023, we disclosed that a bad actor was obtaining data through a single Application Programming Interface (“API”) without authorization. Based on our investigation to date, the impacted API is only able to provide a limited set of customer account data, including name, billing address, email, phone number, date of birth, T-Mobile account number and information such as the number of lines on the account and plan features. The result from our investigation to date indicates that the bad actor(s) obtained data from this API for approximately 37 million current postpaid and prepaid customer accounts, though many of these accounts did not include the full data set. We believe that the bad actor first retrieved data through the impacted API starting on or around November 25, 2022. We continue to investigate the incident and have notified individuals whose information was impacted consistent with state and federal requirements.

We will respond to litigation and regulatory inquiries in connection with this incident and may incur significant expenses. However, we cannot predict the timing or outcome of any of these potential matters, or whether we may be subject to regulatory inquiries, investigations, or enforcement actions. In addition, we are unable to predict the full impact of this incident on customer behavior in the future, including whether a change in our customers’ behavior could negatively impact our results of operations on an ongoing basis, although we presently do not expect that it will have a material effect on our operations.

Additionally, following the August 2021 cyberattack, we commenced a substantial multi-year investment working with leading external cybersecurity experts to enhance our cybersecurity capabilities and transform our approach to cybersecurity. While we have made progress to date, we plan to continue to make substantial investments to strengthen our cybersecurity program in future periods.

Revenue Trends

In 2023, we expect Service revenues to continue to grow, primarily due to continued postpaid account and customer growth as well as Postpaid Average Revenue per Account (“postpaid ARPA”) growth driven by the execution of our strategy to continuously deepen our account relationships, including growth in High Speed Internet. We expect the increase in postpaid service revenues to be partially offset by a decrease in Wholesale and other service revenues, primarily driven by the sale of the Wireline business, which is expected to close mid-2023, the migration by Verizon of legacy TracFone customers off of the T-Mobile network and as DISH services more of its Boost customers with their standalone network. We also expect lower lease revenues as a result of the continued strategic shift in device financing from leasing to EIP.

Operating Expense Trends

In 2023, we expect Total operating expenses to decrease, primarily due to continued synergy realization benefiting Cost of services and Selling, general and administrative expense as well as a significant decrease in Merger-related costs from $5.0 billion in 2022 to approximately $1.0 billion expected in 2023 as the majority of our integration activities have been completed.

We further expect a decrease in operating expenses, primarily Cost of services, associated with serving Wireline customers driven by the sale of the Wireline business which is expected to close mid-2023. The trend of decreasing depreciation on leased devices is expected to continue as a result of the continued strategic shift in device financing from leasing to EIP.

Macroeconomic Trends

Macroeconomic trends may result in adverse impacts on our business, and we continue to monitor these potential impacts, including potential economic recession, changes in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy, as well as geopolitical risks, including the war in Ukraine. Such scenarios and uncertainties may affect, among others, expected credit loss activity as well as certain fair value estimates.

To date, price inflation has not had a significant impact on our operations as we have fixed rates established through long-term contracts for many of our most significant costs, including tower agreements and backhaul contracts. Similarly, our exposure to the impact of rising interest rates is limited, primarily to any new debt issuances or draws on our revolving credit facility, as interest is paid on our Senior Notes at a fixed rate. We continue to monitor the impact of these trends on the payment performance of our customers.

Inflation Reduction Act

On August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) into law. The IRA includes several changes to existing tax law, including a minimum tax on adjusted financial statement income of applicable corporations and an excise tax on certain corporate stock buybacks. The tax provisions included in the IRA are generally effective beginning January 1, 2023, and had no significant impact to the 2022 consolidated financial statements. Management does not expect the IRA to have a significant impact on our operating results or cash flows in 2023, and we continue to review the IRA tax provisions to assess impacts to our future consolidated financial statements.
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Results of Operations

Set forth below is a summary of our consolidated financial results:
Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in millions)202220212020$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Revenues
Postpaid revenues$45,919 $42,562 $36,306 $3,357 %$6,256 17 %
Prepaid revenues9,857 9,733 9,421 124 %312 %
Wholesale and other service revenues5,547 6,074 4,668 (527)(9)%1,406 30 %
Total service revenues61,323 58,369 50,395 2,954 %7,974 16 %
Equipment revenues17,130 20,727 17,312 (3,597)(17)%3,415 20 %
Other revenues1,118 1,022 690 96 %332 48 %
Total revenues79,571 80,118 68,397 (547)(1)%11,721 17 %
Operating expenses
Cost of services, exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below14,666 13,934 11,878 732 %2,056 17 %
Cost of equipment sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below21,540 22,671 16,388 (1,131)(5)%6,283 38 %
Selling, general and administrative21,607 20,238 18,926 1,369 %1,312 %
Impairment expense477 — 418 477 NM(418)(100)%
Loss on disposal group held for sale1,087 — — 1,087 NM— NM
Depreciation and amortization13,651 16,383 14,151 (2,732)(17)%2,232 16 %
Total operating expenses73,028 73,226 61,761 (198)— %11,465 19 %
Operating income6,543 6,892 6,636 (349)(5)%256 %
Other expense, net
Interest expense, net(3,364)(3,342)(2,701)(22)%(641)24 %
Other expense, net(33)(199)(405)166 (83)%206 (51)%
Total other expense, net(3,397)(3,541)(3,106)144 (4)%(435)14 %
Income before income taxes3,146 3,351 3,530 (205)(6)%(179)(5)%
Income tax expense(556)(327)(786)(229)70 %459 (58)%
Income from continuing operations2,590 3,024 2,744 (434)(14)%280 10 %
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax— — 320 — NM(320)(100)%
Net income$2,590 $3,024 $3,064 $(434)(14)%$(40)(1)%
Statement of Cash Flows Data
Net cash provided by operating activities$16,781 $13,917 $8,640 $2,864 21 %$5,277 61 %
Net cash used in investing activities(12,359)(19,386)(12,715)7,027 (36)%(6,671)52 %
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(6,451)1,709 13,010 (8,160)(477)%(11,301)(87)%
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA$27,821 $26,924 $24,557 $897 %$2,367 10 %
Core Adjusted EBITDA26,391 23,576 20,376 2,815 12 %3,200 16 %
Free Cash Flow7,656 5,6463,0012,01036 %2,64588 %
NM - Not Meaningful
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The following discussion and analysis is for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021 unless otherwise stated. For a discussion and analysis of the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the same period in 2020, please refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 11, 2022.

Total revenues decreased $547 million, or 1%. The components of these changes are discussed below.

Postpaid revenues increased $3.4 billion, or 8%, primarily from:

Higher average postpaid accounts; and
Higher postpaid ARPA. See “Postpaid ARPA” in the “Performance Measures” section of this MD&A.

Prepaid revenues increased $124 million, or 1%, primarily from higher average prepaid customers.

Wholesale and other service revenues decreased $527 million, or 9%, primarily from:

Lower advertising, MVNO and Wireline revenues; partially offset by
Higher Lifeline revenues.

Equipment revenues decreased $3.6 billion, or 17%, primarily from:

A decrease of $1.9 billion in lease revenues and a decrease of $599 million in customer purchases of leased devices primarily due to a lower number of customer devices under lease as a result of the continued strategic shift in device financing from leasing to EIP; and
A decrease of $787 million in device sales revenue, excluding purchased leased devices, primarily from:
A decrease in the number of devices sold primarily driven by lower prepaid sales, partially offset by higher upgrade volume for Sprint customers to facilitate their migration to the T-Mobile network;
Slightly lower average revenue per device sold, primarily driven by higher promotions, which included promotions for Sprint customers to facilitate their migration to the T-Mobile network; and
An increase in contra-revenue primarily driven by higher imputed interest rates on EIPs, which is recognized in Other revenues over the device financing term.

Other revenues increased $96 million, or 9%, primarily from:

Higher interest income driven by higher imputed interest rates on EIPs which is recognized over the device financing term.

Total operating expenses decreased $198 million. The components of this change are discussed below.

Cost of services, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, increased $732 million, or 5%, primarily from:

An increase of $1.7 billion in Merger-related costs related to network decommissioning and integration costs; and
Higher site costs related to the continued build-out of our nationwide 5G network; partially offset by
Higher realized Merger synergies.

Cost of equipment sales, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, decreased $1.1 billion, or 5%, primarily from:

A decrease of $964 million in customer purchases of leased devices, primarily due to a lower number of customer devices under lease as a result of the continued strategic shift in device financing from leasing to EIP; and
A decrease of $503 million in device cost of equipment sales, excluding purchased leased devices, primarily from:
A decrease in the number of devices sold primarily driven by lower prepaid sales, partially offset by higher upgrade volume for Sprint customers to facilitate their migration to the T-Mobile network; partially offset by
Slightly higher average cost per device sold due to an increase in the high-end device mix; partially offset by
Higher device insurance claims and warranty fulfillment expense.
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Cost of equipment sales for the year ended December 31, 2022, included $1.5 billion of Merger-related costs, primarily to facilitate the migration of Sprint customers to the T-Mobile network, compared to $1.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $1.4 billion, or 7%, primarily from:

An increase of $773 million in bad debt expense and losses from sales of receivables, driven by higher receivable balances, as well as normalization relative to muted Pandemic levels in 2021 and estimated potential future macroeconomic impacts;
Higher legal-related expenses, net of recoveries, including $400 million recognized in June 2022 for the settlement of certain litigation associated with the August 2021 cyberattack, partially offset by $100 million in reimbursements from insurance carriers received in 2022 associated with the August 2021 cyberattack; and
Higher costs related to outsourced functions; partially offset by
Higher realized Merger synergies and lower Merger-related costs; and
Gains from the sale of certain IP addresses held by the Wireline Business.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022, included $775 million of Merger-related costs, primarily related to integration, restructuring and legal-related expenses, partially offset by $333 million received in gross settlements for certain patent litigation assumed in the Merger, compared to $1.1 billion of Merger-related costs for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Impairment expense was $477 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, due to the non-cash impairment of certain Wireline Property and equipment, Operating lease right-of-use assets and Other intangible assets. See Note 16 - Wireline of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. There was no impairment expense for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Loss on disposal group held for sale was $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2022, due to the agreement for the sale of the Wireline Business. See Note 16 - Wireline of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. There was no loss on disposal group held for sale for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Depreciation and amortization decreased $2.7 billion, or 17%, primarily from:

Lower depreciation expense on leased devices, resulting from a lower number of total customer devices under lease;
Certain 4G-related network assets becoming fully depreciated, including assets impacted by the decommissioning of the legacy Sprint CDMA and LTE networks; and
Lower amortization expense on certain intangible assets acquired in the Merger; partially offset by
Higher depreciation expense, excluding leased devices, from the continued build-out of our nationwide 5G network.

Operating income, the components of which are discussed above, decreased $349 million, or 5%.

Interest expense, net was essentially flat and was impacted by the following:

Lower average debt outstanding and a lower average effective interest rate due to the retirement of higher interest rate debt and the issuance of a lower gross principal amount of lower interest rate debt; offset by
Lower capitalized interest related to the deployment of our 600 MHz spectrum.

Other expense, net decreased $166 million, or 83%, primarily from losses on the extinguishment of debt in 2021.

Income before income taxes, the components of which are discussed above, was $3.1 billion and $3.4 billion for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Income tax expense increased $229 million, or 70%, primarily from:

Tax benefits recognized in the year ended December 31, 2021, associated with legal entity reorganization related to historical Sprint entities, including a reduction in the valuation allowance against deferred tax assets in certain state jurisdictions, that did not impact 2022; partially offset by
Tax benefits recognized in 2022 associated with internal restructuring.
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Our effective tax rate was 17.7% and 9.8% for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Net income, the components of which are discussed above, was $2.6 billion and $3.0 billion for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Net income for the year ended December 31, 2022, included the following:

Merger-related costs, net of tax, of $3.7 billion for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to $2.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Loss on disposal group held for sale of $815 million, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to no loss on disposal group held for sale for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Impairment expense of $358 million, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to no impairment expense for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Certain legal-related expenses, net of recoveries, including from the impact of the settlement of certain litigation associated with the August 2021 cyberattack, of $293 million, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Guarantor Financial Information

In connection with our Merger with Sprint, we assumed certain registered debt to third parties issued by Sprint, Sprint Communications LLC, formerly known as Sprint Communications, Inc. (“Sprint Communications”) and Sprint Capital Corporation (collectively, the “Sprint Issuers”). As of December 31, 2022, all the registered debt to third parties issued by Sprint Communications had matured and Sprint Communications no longer has any such debt outstanding.

Pursuant to the applicable indentures and supplemental indentures, the Senior Notes to affiliates and third parties issued by T-Mobile USA, Inc. and the Sprint Issuers (collectively, the “Issuers”) are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, on a senior unsecured basis by T-Mobile (“Parent”) and certain of Parent’s 100% owned subsidiaries (“Guarantor Subsidiaries”).

The guarantees of the Guarantor Subsidiaries are subject to release in limited circumstances only upon the occurrence of certain customary conditions. Generally, the guarantees of the Guarantor Subsidiaries with respect to the Senior Notes issued by T-Mobile USA, Inc. (other than $3.5 billion in principal amount of Senior Notes issued in 2017 and 2018) and the credit agreement entered into by T-Mobile USA, Inc. will be automatically and unconditionally released if, immediately following such release and any concurrent releases of other guarantees, the aggregate principal amount of indebtedness of non-guarantor subsidiaries (other than certain specified subsidiaries) would not exceed $2.0 billion. The indentures, supplemental indentures and credit agreements governing the long-term debt contain covenants that, among other things, limit the ability of the Issuers or borrowers and the Guarantor Subsidiaries to incur more debt, create liens or other encumbrances, and merge, consolidate or sell, or otherwise dispose of, substantially all of their assets.

Basis of Presentation

The following tables include summarized financial information of the obligor groups of debt issued by T-Mobile USA, Inc., Sprint and Sprint Capital Corporation. The summarized financial information of each obligor group is presented on a combined basis with balances and transactions within the obligor group eliminated. Investments in and the equity in earnings of non-guarantor subsidiaries, which would otherwise be consolidated in accordance with GAAP, are excluded from the below summarized financial information pursuant to SEC Regulation S-X Rule 13-01.

The summarized balance sheet information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by T-Mobile USA, Inc. is presented in the table below:
(in millions)December 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Current assets$17,661 $19,522 
Noncurrent assets181,673 174,980 
Current liabilities23,146 22,195 
Noncurrent liabilities120,385 115,126 
Due to non-guarantors9,325 8,208 
Due to related parties1,571 3,842 

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The summarized results of operations information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by T-Mobile USA, Inc. is presented in the table below:
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Total revenues$77,054 $78,538 
Operating income2,985 3,835 
Net (loss) income(572)402 
Revenue from non-guarantors2,427 1,769 
Operating expenses to non-guarantors2,659 2,655 
Other expense to non-guarantors(327)(148)

The summarized balance sheet information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by Sprint is presented in the table below:
(in millions)December 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Current assets$9,319 $11,969 
Noncurrent assets11,271 10,347 
Current liabilities15,854 15,136 
Noncurrent liabilities65,118 70,262 
Due to non-guarantors3,930 — 
Due from non-guarantors— 1,787 
Due to related parties1,571 3,842 

The summarized results of operations information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by Sprint is presented in the table below:
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Total revenues$$
Operating loss(3,479)(751)
Net income (loss) (1)
2,471 (2,161)
Other income, net, from non-guarantors525 1,706 
(1)     Net income for the year ended December 31, 2022, includes tax benefits recognized associated with internal restructuring.

The summarized balance sheet information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by Sprint Capital Corporation is presented in the table below:
(in millions)December 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Current assets$9,320 $11,969 
Noncurrent assets16,337 19,375 
Current liabilities15,926 15,208 
Noncurrent liabilities66,516 75,753 
Due from non-guarantors5,066 10,814 
Due to related parties1,571 3,842 

The summarized results of operations information for the consolidated obligor group of debt issued by Sprint Capital Corporation is presented in the table below:
Year Ended
December 31, 2022
Year Ended
December 31, 2021
(in millions)
Total revenues$$
Operating loss(3,479)(751)
Net income (loss) (1)
2,604 (2,590)
Other income, net, from non-guarantors941 2,076 
(1)     Net income for the year ended December 31, 2022, includes tax benefits recognized associated with internal restructuring.

Performance Measures

In managing our business and assessing financial performance, we supplement the information provided by our consolidated financial statements with other operating or statistical data and non-GAAP financial measures. These operating and financial measures are utilized by our management to evaluate our operating performance and, in certain cases, our ability to meet
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liquidity requirements. Although companies in the wireless industry may not define each of these measures in precisely the same way, we believe that these measures facilitate comparisons with other companies in the wireless industry on key operating and financial measures.

Total Postpaid Accounts

A postpaid account is generally defined as a billing account number that generates revenue. Postpaid accounts generally consist of customers that are qualified for postpaid service utilizing phones, High Speed Internet, tablets, wearables, DIGITS or other connected devices, where they generally pay after receiving service.
As of December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in thousands)202220212020# Change% Change# Change% Change
Total postpaid customer accounts (1) (2) (3)
28,526 27,216 25,754 1,310 %1,462 %
(1)     Customers impacted by the decommissioning of the legacy Sprint CDMA and LTE and T-Mobile UMTS networks have been excluded from our postpaid account base resulting in the removal of 57,000 postpaid accounts in the first quarter of 2022 and 69,000 postpaid accounts in the second quarter of 2022.
(2)    In the first quarter of 2021, we acquired 4,000 postpaid accounts through our acquisition of an affiliate. In the third quarter of 2021, we acquired 270,000 postpaid accounts through our acquisition of the Wireless Assets of Shentel.
(3)     Includes accounts acquired in connection with the Merger and certain account base adjustments. See Sprint Merger Account Base Adjustments table below.

Total postpaid customer accounts increased 1,310,000, or 5%, primarily due to the Company’s differentiated growth strategy in new and under-penetrated markets, including continued growth in High Speed Internet.

Sprint Merger Account Base Adjustments

Certain adjustments were made to align the account reporting policies of T-Mobile and Sprint.

The adjustments made to the reported T-Mobile and Sprint ending account base as of March 31, 2020 are presented below:
(in thousands)Postpaid Accounts
Reconciliation to beginning accounts
T-Mobile accounts as reported, end of period March 31, 202015,244 
Sprint accounts, end of period March 31, 202011,246 
Total combined accounts, end of period March 31, 202026,490 
Adjustments
Reseller reclassification to wholesale accounts (1)
(1)
EIP reclassification from postpaid to prepaid (2)
(963)
Rate plan threshold (3)
(18)
Collection policy alignment (4)
(76)
Miscellaneous adjustments (5)
(47)
Total Adjustments(1,105)
Adjusted beginning accounts as of April 1, 202025,385 
(1)     In connection with the closing of the Merger, we refined our definition of wholesale accounts resulting in the reclassification of certain postpaid and prepaid reseller accounts to wholesale accounts.
(2)     Prepaid accounts with a customer with a device installment billing plan historically included as Sprint postpaid accounts have been reclassified to prepaid accounts to align with T-Mobile policy.
(3)     Accounts with customers who have rate plans with monthly recurring charges that are considered insignificant have been excluded from our reported accounts.
(4)     Certain Sprint accounts subject to collection activity for an extended period of time have been excluded from our reported accounts to align with T-Mobile policy.
(5)     Miscellaneous insignificant adjustments to align with T-Mobile policy.

Postpaid Net Account Additions

The following table sets forth the number of postpaid net account additions:
Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in thousands)202220212020# Change% Change# Change% Change
Postpaid net account additions1,436 1,188 566 248 21 %622 110 %

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Postpaid net account additions increased 248,000, or 21%, primarily due to continued growth resulting from the Company’s differentiated growth strategy in new and under-penetrated markets, including continued growth in High Speed Internet.

Customers

A customer is generally defined as a SIM number with a unique T-Mobile identifier which is associated with an account that generates revenue. Customers are qualified either for postpaid service utilizing phones, High Speed Internet, tablets, wearables, DIGITS or other connected devices, where they generally pay after receiving service, or prepaid service, where they generally pay in advance of receiving service.

The following table sets forth the number of ending customers:
As of December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in thousands)202220212020# Change% Change# Change% Change
Customers, end of period
Postpaid phone customers (1) (2) (3)
72,834 70,262 66,618 2,572 %3,644 %
Postpaid other customers (1) (2) (3)
19,398 17,401 14,732 1,997 11 %2,669 18 %
Total postpaid customers92,232 87,663 81,350 4,569 %6,313 %
Prepaid customers (1) (3)
21,366 21,056 20,714 310 %342 %
Total customers113,598 108,719 102,064 4,879 %6,655 %
Acquired customers, net of base adjustments (1) (2) (3)
(1,878)818 29,228 (2,696)(330)%(28,410)(97)%
(1)     Customers impacted by the decommissioning of the legacy Sprint CDMA and LTE and T-Mobile UMTS networks have been excluded from our customer base resulting in the removal of 212,000 postpaid phone customers and 349,000 postpaid other customers in the first quarter of 2022 and 284,000 postpaid phone customers, 946,000 postpaid other customers and 28,000 prepaid customers in the second quarter of 2022. In connection with our acquisition of companies, we included a base adjustment in the first quarter of 2022 to increase postpaid phone customers by 17,000 and reduce postpaid other customers by 14,000. Certain customers now serviced through reseller contracts were removed from our reported postpaid customer base resulting in the removal of 42,000 postpaid phone customers and 20,000 postpaid other customers in the second quarter of 2022.
(2)     In the first quarter of 2021, we acquired 11,000 postpaid phone customers and 1,000 postpaid other customers through our acquisition of an affiliate. In the third quarter of 2021, we acquired 716,000 postpaid phone customers and 90,000 postpaid other customers through our acquisition of the Wireless Assets from Shentel.
(3)     Includes customers acquired in connection with the Merger and certain customer base adjustments. See Sprint Merger Customer Base Adjustments and Net Customer Additions tables below.

Total customers increased 4,879,000, or 4%, primarily from:

Higher postpaid phone customers, primarily due to growth in new customer account relationships;
Higher postpaid other customers, primarily due to growth in other connected devices, including growth in High Speed Internet and wearable products; and
Higher prepaid customers, primarily due to the continued success of our prepaid business due to promotional activity and rate plan offers, including the introduction of our prepaid High Speed Internet offering, partially offset by lower prepaid industry demand associated with continued industry shift to postpaid plans.

Total customers included High Speed Internet customers of 2,646,000 and 646,000 as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

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Sprint Merger Customer Base Adjustments

Certain adjustments were made to align the customer reporting policies of T-Mobile and Sprint.

The adjustments made to the reported T-Mobile and Sprint ending customer base as of March 31, 2020, are presented below:
(in thousands)Postpaid phone customersPostpaid other customersTotal postpaid customersPrepaid customersTotal customers
Reconciliation to beginning customers
T-Mobile customers as reported, end of period March 31, 202040,797 7,014 47,811 20,732 68,543 
Sprint customers as reported, end of period March 31, 202025,916 8,428 34,344 8,256 42,600 
Total combined customers, end of period March 31, 202066,713 15,442 82,155 28,988 111,143 
Adjustments
Reseller reclassification to wholesale customers (1)
(199)(2,872)(3,071)— (3,071)
EIP reclassification from postpaid to prepaid (2)
(963)— (963)963 — 
Divested prepaid customers (3)
— — — (9,207)(9,207)
Rate plan threshold (4)
(182)(918)(1,100)— (1,100)
Customers with non-phone devices (5)
(226)226 — — — 
Collection policy alignment (6)
(150)(46)(196)— (196)
Miscellaneous adjustments (7)
(141)(43)(184)(302)(486)
Total Adjustments(1,861)(3,653)(5,514)(8,546)(14,060)
Adjusted beginning customers as of April 1, 202064,852 11,789 76,641 20,442 97,083 
(1)     In connection with the closing of the Merger, we refined our definition of wholesale customers, resulting in the reclassification of certain postpaid and prepaid reseller customers to wholesale customers. Starting with the three months ended March 31, 2020, we discontinued reporting wholesale customers to focus on postpaid and prepaid customers and wholesale revenues, which we consider more relevant than the number of wholesale customers given the expansion of M2M and IoT products.
(2)     Prepaid customers with a device installment billing plan historically included as Sprint postpaid customers have been reclassified to prepaid customers to align with T-Mobile policy.
(3)     Customers associated with the Sprint wireless prepaid and Boost Mobile brands that were divested on July 1, 2020, have been excluded from our reported customers.
(4)     Customers who have rate plans with monthly recurring charges which are considered insignificant have been excluded from our reported customers.
(5)     Customers with postpaid phone rate plans without a phone (e.g., non-phone devices) have been reclassified from postpaid phone to postpaid other customers to align with T-Mobile policy.
(6)     Certain Sprint customers subject to collection activity for an extended period of time have been excluded from our reported customers to align with T-Mobile policy.
(7)     Miscellaneous insignificant adjustments to align with T-Mobile policy.

Net Customer Additions

The following table sets forth the number of net customer additions:
Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in thousands)202220212020# Change% Change# Change% Change
Net customer additions
Postpaid phone customers 3,093 2,917 2,218 176 %699 32 %
Postpaid other customers3,326 2,578 3,268 748 29 %(690)(21)%
Total postpaid customers6,419 5,495 5,486 924 17 %— %
Prepaid customers338 342 145 (4)(1)%197 136 %
Total customers6,757 5,837 5,631 920 16 %206 %
Adjustments to customers(1,878)818 29,228 (2,696)(330)%(28,410)(97)%

Total net customer additions increased 920,000, or 16%, primarily from:

Higher postpaid other net customer additions, primarily due to an increase in postpaid High Speed Internet net customer additions and other connected devices, partially offset by lower net additions from mobile internet devices; and
Higher postpaid phone net customer additions, primarily due to lower churn, partially offset by lower gross additions driven by industry switching activity normalizing closer to pre-Pandemic levels; partially offset by
Lower prepaid net customer additions associated with the continued industry shift to postpaid plans, partially offset by the introduction of our prepaid High Speed Internet offering and lower churn.
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High Speed Internet net customer additions included in postpaid other net customer additions were 1,764,000 and 546,000 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. High Speed Internet net customer additions included in prepaid net customer additions were 236,000 for the year ended December 31, 2022. Our prepaid High Speed Internet launch was in the first quarter of 2022. Therefore, there were no prepaid High Speed Internet net customer additions for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Churn

Churn represents the number of customers whose service was disconnected as a percentage of the average number of customers during the specified period further divided by the number of months in the period. The number of customers whose service was disconnected is presented net of customers that subsequently had their service restored within a certain period of time and excludes customers who received service for less than a certain minimum period of time. We believe that churn provides management, investors and analysts with useful information to evaluate customer retention and loyalty.

The following table sets forth the churn:
Year Ended December 31,Bps Change 2022 Versus 2021Bps Change 2021 Versus 2020
202220212020
Postpaid phone churn0.88 %0.98 %0.90 %-10 bps8 bps
Prepaid churn2.77 %2.83 %3.03 %-6 bps-20 bps

Postpaid phone churn decreased 10 basis points, primarily from:

Reduced Sprint churn as we progress through the integration process; partially offset by
More normalized payment performance relative to muted Pandemic levels in 2021.
Prepaid churn decreased 6 basis points, primarily from:

Promotional activity; partially offset by
More normalized payment performance relative to muted Pandemic levels in 2021.

Postpaid Average Revenue Per Account

Postpaid ARPA represents the average monthly postpaid service revenue earned per account. Postpaid ARPA is calculated as Postpaid revenues for the specified period divided by the average number of postpaid accounts during the period, further divided by the number of months in the period. We believe postpaid ARPA provides management, investors and analysts with useful information to assess and evaluate our postpaid service revenue realization and assist in forecasting our future postpaid service revenues on a per account basis. We consider postpaid ARPA to be indicative of our revenue growth potential given the increase in the average number of postpaid phone customers per account and increases in postpaid other customers, including High Speed Internet, tablets, wearables, DIGITS or other connected devices.

The following table sets forth our operating measure ARPA:
(in dollars)Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
202220212020$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Postpaid ARPA$137.43 $134.03 $131.78 $3.40 %$2.25 %
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Postpaid ARPA increased $3.40, or 3%, primarily from:

Higher premium services, including Magenta Max;
Higher non-recurring charges relative to muted Pandemic levels in 2021; and
An increase in customers per account, including continued adoption of High Speed Internet from existing accounts; partially offset by
An increase in High Speed Internet only accounts and increased promotional activity, including growth in rate plans for specific customer cohorts such as Business, Military, and First Responder.

Average Revenue Per User

Average Revenue per User (“ARPU”) represents the average monthly service revenue earned per customer. ARPU is calculated as service revenues for the specified period divided by the average number of customers during the period, further divided by the number of months in the period. We believe ARPU provides management, investors and analysts with useful information to assess and evaluate our service revenue per customer and assist in forecasting our future service revenues generated from our customer base. Postpaid phone ARPU excludes postpaid other customers and related revenues, which include High Speed Internet, tablets, wearables, DIGITS and other connected devices.

The following table sets forth our operating measure ARPU:
(in dollars)Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
202220212020$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Postpaid phone ARPU$48.78 $47.75 $47.74 $1.03 %$0.01 — %
Prepaid ARPU38.76 38.79 38.12 (0.03)— %0.67 %

Postpaid Phone ARPU

Postpaid phone ARPU increased $1.03, or 2%, primarily due to:

Higher premium services, including Magenta Max; and
Higher non-recurring charges relative to muted Pandemic levels in 2021; partially offset by
Increased promotional activity, including growth in rate plans for specific customer cohorts such as Business, Military, and First Responder.

Prepaid ARPU

Prepaid ARPU was essentially flat, primarily from:

Increased promotional activity; offset by
Higher premium services; and
Higher non-recurring charges.

Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA represents earnings before Interest expense, net of Interest income, Income tax expense, Depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation and certain income and expenses not reflective of our ongoing operating performance. Core Adjusted EBITDA represents Adjusted EBITDA less device lease revenues. Adjusted EBITDA margin represents Adjusted EBITDA divided by Service revenues. Core Adjusted EBITDA margin represents Core Adjusted EBITDA divided by Service revenues.

Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Core Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA margin are non-GAAP financial measures utilized by our management to monitor the financial performance of our operations. We historically used Adjusted EBITDA and we currently use Core Adjusted EBITDA internally as a measure to evaluate and compensate our personnel and management for their performance. We use Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA as benchmarks to evaluate our operating performance in comparison to our competitors. Management believes analysts and investors use Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA as supplemental measures to evaluate overall operating performance and to facilitate comparisons with other wireless communications services companies because they are indicative of our ongoing
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operating performance and trends by excluding the impact of interest expense from financing, non-cash depreciation and amortization from capital investments, stock-based compensation, Merger-related costs, including network decommissioning costs, impairment expense, losses on disposal groups held for sale and certain legal-related recoveries and expenses, as well as other special income and expenses which are not reflective of our core business activities. Management believes analysts and investors use Core Adjusted EBITDA because it normalizes for the transition in the Company’s device financing strategy, by excluding the impact of device lease revenues from Adjusted EBITDA, to align with the exclusion of the related depreciation expense on leased devices from Adjusted EBITDA. Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Core Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA margin have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for income from operations, net income or any other measure of financial performance reported in accordance with GAAP.

The following table illustrates the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA and reconciles Adjusted EBITDA and Core Adjusted EBITDA to Net income, which we consider to be the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure:
Year Ended December 31,2022 Versus 20212021 Versus 2020
(in millions)202220212020$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Net income$2,590 $3,024 $3,064 $(434)(14)%$(40)(1)%
Adjustments:
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax— — (320)— NM320 (100)%
Income from continuing operations2,590 3,024 2,744 (434)(14)%280 10 %
Interest expense, net3,364 3,342 2,701 22 %641 24 %
Other expense, net33 199 405 (166)(83)%(206)(51)%
Income tax expense556 327 786 229 70 %(459)(58)%
Operating income6,543 6,892 6,636 (349)(5)%256 %
Depreciation and amortization13,651 16,383 14,151 (2,732)(17)%2,232 16 %
Operating income from discontinued operations (1)
— — 432 — NM(432)(100)%
Stock-based compensation (2)
576 521 516 55 11 %%
Merger-related costs4,969 3,107 1,915 1,862 60 %1,192 62 %
COVID-19-related costs— — 458 — NM(458)(100)%
Impairment expense477 — 418 477 NM(418)(100)%
Legal-related expenses, net (3)
391 — — 391 NM— NM
Loss on disposal group held for sale1,087 — — 1,087 NM— NM
Other, net (4)
127 21 31 106 505 %(10)(32)%
Adjusted EBITDA27,821 26,924 24,557 897 %2,367 10 %
Lease revenues(1,430)(3,348)(4,181)1,918 (57)%833 (20)%
Core Adjusted EBITDA
$26,391 $23,576 $20,376 $2,815 12 %$3,200 16 %
Net income margin (Net income divided by Service revenues)%%%-100 bps-100 bps
Adjusted EBITDA margin (Adjusted EBITDA divided by Service revenues)45 %46 %49 %-100 bps-300 bps
Core Adjusted EBITDA margin (Core Adjusted EBITDA divided by Service revenues)
43 %40 %40 %300 bps— bps